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Reliability Considerations and Economic Benefits of Dynamic Transformer Rating for Wind Energy Integration
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering. (RCAM)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4065-715X
Corporate Research, ABB AB.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering. (RCAM)
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An increasing share of renewable energy on the electricity market creates the need for economic and efficient production, operation and integration technologies, associated with the specific behavior of renewable energy sources (RES). Dynamic rating (DR) provides a possibility to apply improvements to the system both during planning and operation stages. The DR benefits are well described in various literature sources. However, DR is often focused on more efficient exploitation of power lines, not power transformers. Power transformers are costly equipment and their efficient usage and planning can have drastic effect on total costs.

Our analysis focuses on the dynamic transformer rating (DTR) for wind energy applications. The main objective is to study reliability effects of DTR from the component perspective. We utilize existing knowledge about transformer heat balance models from IEC and IEEE standards to obtain information on the loss of life (LOL) of the transformer under investigation and propose possible improvements for the system in question. The method can be employed for identifying the appropriate transformer size by taking into account ambient temperature and load variations and then overloading the transformer beyond nameplate ratings. The reliability of the proposed application is ensured by calculating the risk of overloading the transformer for each day of the year. A risk of overloading is quantified as LOL of the transformer. The risk is presented as a function of ambient temperature and duration of an overload. The final step consists of an economic analysis, which demonstrates economic benefits of DTR application.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226563OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-226563DiVA, id: diva2:1199334
Projects
Dynamic Rating for Wind Power
Note

QC 20180424

Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Dynamic Rating of Power Lines and Transformers for Wind Energy Integration
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Rating of Power Lines and Transformers for Wind Energy Integration
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dynamic Rating (DR) is usually associated with unlocking the capacity of power lines and transformers using available information on weather conditions. Our studies show that Dynamic Rating is a broad concept that requires further study and development.

The capacity of the majority of power devices is highly dependent on the heat transfer properties of the materials which the devices are made of. To ensure correct power limits of the equipment, one must take into consideration not only the power load, but also ambient conditions, such as: temperature, wind speed, wind direction, solar irradiation, humidity, pressure, radiation into the atmosphere and magnetic losses.

Dynamic rating is created as an alternative to standard constant rating that is designed with reference to extreme weather and load conditions. Some areas are more likely than others to experience extreme weather conditions, which have a chance of occurring only a few days per year for short periods of time. Such a distribution of weather parameters gives an opportunity to embed existing material properties of the power equipment and achieve a better utilization of the grid.

The following thesis is divided into two simultaneous topics: Dynamic line rating and Dynamic transformer rating. The division is motivated by the importance of analysing the operation of the above-mentioned parts of the power network in greater detail. Power lines and transformers play a significant part in grid planning and have a potential to result in economic benefits when used with DR.

The main focus of the doctoral project "Dynamic rating of power lines and transformers for wind energy integration" is on exploring potential ways to connect power generated from wind to the grid with the help of dynamic rating technologies. Therefore, great focus of the work lies on the analysis of DR connection of variable energy sources such as wind farms.

The thesis presents the comparison of different line rating methods and proposes a new way of their classification. Evaluation of dynamic line rating application has shown the possibility to expand the power grid with additional capacity from wind power generation. Literature analysis and detailed evaluation of the conductor heat balance models have led to experimental evaluation of the convective cooling effect.

The dynamic transformer rating application has shown a possibility to decrease the size of the power transformer without shortcoming in component availability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 54
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:37
Keywords
dynamic line rating, dynamic transformer rating, power transformers, heat balance, thermal modeling, wind power, wind energy integration, reliability analysis, risk analysis
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226564 (URN)978-91-7729-760-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-05-09, Ivar Herlitz, Teknikringen 33, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Dynamic Rating for Wind Power
Funder
StandUp for Wind
Note

QC 20180423

Available from: 2018-04-23 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2018-04-23Bibliographically approved

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