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Dark Energy after GW170817: Dead Ends and the Road Ahead
KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
2017 (English)In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 119, no 25, article id 251304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multimessenger gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy has commenced with the detection of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its associated electromagnetic counterparts. The almost coincident observation of both signals places an exquisite bound on the GW speed |cg/c-1|≤5×10-16. We use this result to probe the nature of dark energy (DE), showing that a large class of scalar-tensor theories and DE models are highly disfavored. As an example we consider the covariant Galileon, a cosmologically viable, well motivated gravity theory which predicts a variable GW speed at low redshift. Our results eliminate any late-universe application of these models, as well as their Horndeski and most of their beyond Horndeski generalizations. Three alternatives (and their combinations) emerge as the only possible scalar-tensor DE models: (1) restricting Horndeski's action to its simplest terms, (2) applying a conformal transformation which preserves the causal structure, and (3) compensating the different terms that modify the GW speed (to be robust, the compensation has to be independent on the background on which GWs propagate). Our conclusions extend to any other gravity theory predicting varying cg such as Einstein-Aether, Hořava gravity, Generalized Proca, tensor-vector-scalar gravity (TEVES), and other MOND-like gravities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society , 2017. Vol. 119, no 25, article id 251304
Keyword [en]
Astrophysics, Conformal mapping, Gravity waves, Binary neutron stars, Conformal transformation, Covariant, Dark energy, Dead-ends, Gravity theory, Red shift, Tensors
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227110DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.251304Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85039152908OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-227110DiVA, id: diva2:1205842
Note

QC 20180515

Available from: 2018-05-15 Created: 2018-05-15 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved

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