Seawater intrusion in the Salalah plain aquifer, Oman
2007 (English)In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 53, no 3, 575-587 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Salalah is situated on a fresh water aquifer that is replenished during the annual monsoon season. The aquifer is the only source of water in Salalah city. The rainfall and mist precipitation in the Jabal AlQara recharges the plain with significant renewable fresh groundwater that has allowed agricultural and industrial development to occur. In Salalah city where groundwater has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes, the groundwater has been withdrawn from the aquifer more rapidly than it can be replenished by natural recharge. The heavy withdrawal of large quantities of the groundwater from the aquifer has led to the intrusion of seawater. Agricultural activities utilize over 70% of the groundwater. For the study of the saltwater intrusion, the area has been divided into four strips, A, B, C and D, on the basis of land-use in the area. Water samples were collected from 18 water wells. Chemical analysis of major ions and pollution parameters in the groundwater was carried out and compared to the previous observed values. The electrical conductivity and chloride concentrations were highest in the agricultural and residential strips and Garziz grass farm. Before 1992 the aquifer was in a steady state, but presently (2005) the groundwater quality in most of the agricultural and residential strips does not meet drinking water standards. In addition, model simulations were developed with the computer code MODFLOW and MT3DMS for solute transport to determine the movement of the freshwater/saltwater interface. The study proposes the protection of the groundwater in Salalah plain aquifer from further encroachment by artificial recharge with reclaimed water, preferably along the Salalah coastal agricultural strip. This scheme can also be applied to other regions with similar conditions.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 53, no 3, 575-587 p.
Oman; Over-pumping; Reclaimed water and artificial recharge; Saltwater intrusion; Septic tanks; Aquifers; Concentration (process); Groundwater resources; Rain; Septic tanks; Water treatment; Over-pumping; Reclaimed water and artificial recharge; Saltwater intrusion; Seawater; agricultural land; aquifer; coastal zone; drinking water; freshwater environment; groundwater pollution; human activity; ion; monsoon; precipitation (climatology); rainfall; saline intrusion; seawater; simulation;
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7146DOI: 10.1007/s00254-007-0673-2ISI: 000250464700011ScopusID: 2-s2.0-35649028885OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7146DiVA: diva2:12067
QC 20100818. Även publicerad i Journal of Environmental Hydrology, Vol. 15, 2007, s. 1-14.2007-05-202007-05-202010-08-18Bibliographically approved