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Predictive simulation of flow and solute transport for managing the Salalah coastal aquifer, Oman
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2009 (English)In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, Vol. 23, no 14, 2941-2963 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A three-dimensional numerical model for flow and solute transport was used for the management of the Salalah aquifer. The model calibration procedures consisted of calibrating the aquifer system hydraulic parameters by history matching under steady and transient conditions. The history of input and output of the aquifer were reconstructed in a transient calibration from 1993 to 2005. Predictive simulation of the aquifer was carried out under transient conditions to predict the future demand of groundwater supply for the next 15 years. A baseline scenario was worked out to obtain the piezometric surface and salinity distribution for the "business as usual" conditions of the aquifer. The "business as usual" scenario was predicted and simulated for the period 2006 until 2020. The effectiveness of seven management options was proposed and assessed for comparison with the "business as usual" conditions. The established simulation model was used to predict the distribution of the piezometric surface, salinity distribution, and mass balance under the proposed scenarios for the prediction period 2006-2020. The scenarios were: (1) relocate Garziz and MAF farms far from the freshwater zone, (2) suspend the abstraction of grass production for 4 months a year, (3) changes in agricultural and irrigation system patterns, (4) establish a desalination plant, (5) combined scenario (1 + 4), (6) combined scenario (1 + 3), and (7) combining all scenarios (1 + 2 + 3 + 4). The result of the simulation shows that the best effective option in terms of aquifer groundwater levels is the fifth proposed scenario and the sixth proposed scenario is the best effective option in terms of aquifer groundwater salinity situation during the next 15 years. This project suggested the application of scenario 6 as it is environmentally sound in terms of sustainable management. A prediction has been made which shows that further actions have to be taken within the next two decades to ensure continuity of the municipal water supply. The management scenarios are examined in the case of the Salalah coastal aquifer using groundwater simulation, which can also be applied to other regions with similar conditions. The established model is considered a reasonable representation of the physical conditions of the Salalah plain aquifer, and can be used as a tool by the water and environmental authorities in the management of the groundwater in the region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 23, no 14, 2941-2963 p.
Keyword [en]
Groundwater flow model; MODFLOW; MT3DMS; Salalah coastal aquifer; Salinity intrusion; Aquifers; Calibration; Competition; Computer graphics; Desalination; Flow simulation; Groundwater flow; Hydrogeology; Municipal engineering; Salinity measurement; Simulators; Solute transport; Water filtration; Water supply; Groundwater resources; coastal aquifer; groundwater flow; mass balance; numerical model; saline intrusion; salinity; solute transport
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7149DOI: 10.1007/s11269-009-9417-2ISI: 000270898700006Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-70350338738OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7149DiVA: diva2:12070
Note
QC 20100818. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100818.Available from: 2007-05-20 Created: 2007-05-20 Last updated: 2010-08-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sustainable management of the Salalah coastal aquifer in Oman using an integrated approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable management of the Salalah coastal aquifer in Oman using an integrated approach
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Most of the coastal areas around the globe depend on coastal aquifers vulnerable to salt water intrusion. The Salalah plain in southern Oman is underlain by a shallow limestone aquifer extending north up to the foot of the Jabal AlQara which reach a height of about 1000 m. A major part of the recharge to the aquifer is through fog condensation on the forest on the upper slopes of the mountain. Increasing population and water use for agriculture has caused limited salt-water intrusion. There is an urgent need for management of the aquifer to avoid further intrusion. A numerical flow model was developed for the Salalah coastal aquifer using both the MODFLOW and the MT3DMS computer codes to study the present water flow and future water turnover, the latter under different scenarios. The fog collecting forest is under threat due to the browsing of herds of camels. Recharge of treated wastewater is a management measure already in operation. Other management options considered, are restrictions on the use of water in irrigation and improvements in irrigation practices. Still another measure is reforestation of Jabal AlQara.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. xii, 22 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2007:1031
Keyword
groundwater, cosatal aquifer, salt water instrusion, fog, modelling
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4384 (URN)978-91-7178-645-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-05-29, V1, KTH, Teknikringen 76, Stockholm, 10:15
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100817Available from: 2007-05-20 Created: 2007-05-20 Last updated: 2010-08-18Bibliographically approved

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