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Treatment conditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The pollutant load in road runoff is related to traffic densities and road maintenance activities. Inurbanised areas treatment of road runoff is common and often considered necessary. The pollutantsare partitioned between the particulate and dissolved matter. However, the contaminantstend to have an affinity to the particulate material. Sedimentation, the predominant treatmentmethod for road runoff uses various types of ponds. Design tools used for stormwater treatmentsystems are based on extensive data from existing treatment systems. The variations in the empiricaldata make it difficult when attempting to evaluate precise conditions for pollutant removaland thereby minimising the land use for a treatment facility. This is a concern in highly urbanisedareas where land use often is restricted.In this work, field studies were conducted in three separate watersheds along the same motorwaywith an annual average daily traffic exceeding 120,000 vehicles. The aim was to assess treatmentconditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff.The study of mass transport of total suspended solids used the EU Directive (1991/271/EEC)discharge requirement for urban wastewater treatment: 60 mg/l during winter and summer. Theresults showed that a capture of the total runoff volume was necessary during both seasons. Tenmetals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), as dissolved and particulate bound, werestudied in the road runoff during a winter season and the following summer period. The dissolvedpart of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, and Ni was significantly higher in winter. The mass concentration(mg/kg) for all metals was significantly higher over the summer except for Al and Co, whichshowed a higher mass concentration during the winter. The total metal concentration showed agood correlation to total suspended solids (TSS) during winter with exception for Cd. Good correlationto TSS was also found for the summer period for Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn. A simplemodel could describe sedimentation by the initial concentration of TSS, albeit road salt (NaCl)had a significant impact on the sedimentation process during winter. Removal of dissolved metalswas studied by column experiments using water granulated blast furnace slag. The result showedgood removal for Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn independent of NaCl concentrations. Sediment accumulation(mg sediment/mm precipitation) was relatively consistent for the studied summer seasons asopposed to winter. The sediment differed in metal mass concentrations (mg/kg) between theseasons. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were high in regard to the guidelines for sensitivity ofsediment dwelling organisms and Swedish guidelines for contaminated soils.The findings suggest that the entire runoff volume must be captured for treatment. The reductionof TSS concentration could be estimated for a specific surface load (m/h). This would alsoapply for majority of the studied metals that correlated well to the particulate material. Reactivefilter technology using water granulated blast furnace slag could be applied for treatment of runofffor the reduction of dissolved metals. However, long-term studies are necessary for its practicalimplementation. Furthermore; the work shows that on-line turbidity measurements could beused for expedient process control for treatment facilities in similar watersheds dominated byroads. The work could be used together with existing design methods and models to evaluate andoptimise road runoff treatment.

Abstract [sv]

Föroreningsbelastningen i vägdagvatten är beroende av trafikbelastningen och vägunderhållet. Iurbaniserade områden är behandling av dagvatten vanlig och ofta bedömd nödvändig. Föroreningarnaär lösta och partikulära, men har vanligen en affinitet till det partikulära materialet. Denförhärskande behandlingsmetoden för dagvatten är sedimentering, vanligen i dammar. Designmodellernabygger på data från olika befintliga dagvattenanläggningar. Det varierande ursprungettill det empiriska underlaget medför svårighet att precist värdera designförutsättningarna och såledesminimera behandlingsanläggningens storlek. I förtätad stadsmiljö, där tillgång på mark ärbegränsad, kan detta vara ett problem.I detta arbete har fältförsök genomförts i tre avrinningsområden vilka domineras av en motorledmed en årlig dygnstrafik större än 120,000 fordon för att utvärdera behandlingsförutsättningar förvägdagvatten.Masstransporten av suspenderat material (SS) utvärderades utifrån EU Direktivet(1991/271/EEC) och gränsvärdet för avloppsvatten på 60 mg/l under vinter och sommar. Studienvisade att hela avrinningsvolymen bör behandlas oberoende av säsong. Fördelningen mellanpartikulärt och löst material studerades för tio metaller (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn)under vinter och sommar. Den lösta delen av Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn och Ni var signifikant högreunder vintern. Den partikulära koncentrationen (mg/kg) för samtliga metaller var högre undersommaren med undantag för Al och Co vilka förekom i högre halter under vintern. Totalhalten(μg/l) av metallerna korrelerade väl med SS under vintern med undantag för Cd. Likaledes uppvisaderesultaten en god korrelation mellan SS och Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni och Zn under sommaren.Sedimenteringsegenskaperna kunde beskrivas med en enkel modell utifrån koncentration av SS,men förhöjda halter av vägsalt (NaCl) befanns påverka sedimenteringen under vintern. Reduktionav lösta metaller studerades i pilotförsök med vattenkyld granulerad masugnsslagg. God avskiljningerhölls för Cd, Cu, Ni och Zn oberoende av förhöjda halter av vägsalt. Ackumulering avsediment (mg sediment/mm nederbörd) befanns vara konstant under sommaren i motsats tillstuderade vinterperioder. Sedimentkoncentrationerna av Cu och Zn var förhöjda med avseendepå riktlinjer för känslighet hos sedimentlevande organismer samt för återanvändning av slam.Resultaten visar att hela avrinningsvolymen måste behandlas. Reduktion av SS samt huvuddelenav metallerna, vilka visade god korrelation till det partikulära materialet, kan skattas utifrån enspecifik ytbelastning (m/h). Reduktion av lösta metaller kan ske med granulerad masugnsslagg,dock bör långtidsstudier genomföras. Vidare visar studien på möjligheten att nyttja kontinuerligturbiditetsmätning för en effektiv och praktisk processkontroll i reningsanläggningar för liknandeavrinningsområden med hög trafikbelastning. Resultaten av arbetet kan användas för bedömningoch optimering av vägdagvattenbehandling tillsammans med existerande designmetoder och modeller.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , xii, 35 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1032
Keyword [en]
dissolved matter, filter bed, particulate matter, sedimentation, suspended solids
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4386ISBN: 978-91-7178-661-6 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7178-645-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4386DiVA: diva2:12086
Public defence
2007-06-01, Sal F3, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100709Available from: 2007-05-21 Created: 2007-05-21 Last updated: 2010-07-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication
2006 (English)In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 27, no 9, 945-950 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants, This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg V. In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg l(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed.

Keyword
discharge value; event mean concentration; first flush; storm water; winter
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5521 (URN)10.1080/09593332708618710 (DOI)000241916300001 ()17067120 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-33750561517 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100709. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published 20100709.Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
2. Suspended solids concentration in highway runoff during summer conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suspended solids concentration in highway runoff during summer conditions
2008 (English)In: Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, ISSN 1230-1485, Vol. 17, no 2, 237-241 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One treatment practice for storm water is detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentration of pollutants. This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) in 44 consecutive runoff events from a highway watershed. The effluent TSS standard for wastewater of 60 mg/l applied in the EU was used to assess the required treatment. In 35 of the runoff events the TSS partial event mean concentration exceeded 60 mg/l for the duration of the runoff event. Thus, a partial capture of the runoff volume should not be used as a treatment option in similar conditions that prevailed in this study.

Keyword
discharge value; event mean concentration; first flush; storm water
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7158 (URN)000254945600008 ()2-s2.0-42549109595 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100709. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100709.Available from: 2007-05-21 Created: 2007-05-21 Last updated: 2011-10-10Bibliographically approved
3. Seasonal variations of ten metals in highway runoff and their partition between dissolved and particulate matter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seasonal variations of ten metals in highway runoff and their partition between dissolved and particulate matter
2007 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 181, no 1-4, 183-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of differentiation of pollutants in urban runoff between dissolved and particulate matter is of great concern for a successful design of a water treatment process. Seasonal variations in pollutant load are of equal importance. Ten metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), as dissolved and particulate bound, was studied in the runoff from a major urban highway during a winter season and its following summer. Studded tyres and winter salting were expected to have an impact on the runoff water quality. The dissolved part of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn and Ni was significantly higher in winter in comparison with summer (p < 0.01). For Fe, however, the dissolved part was lower during winter. No significant difference was found for Cu, Pb and Zn between the two seasons. The mass concentration (mg kg(-1)) for all metals was significantly higher over the summer except for Al and Co, which showed a higher mass concentration during the winter. The concentration of selected metals vs. total suspended solids (TSS) showed a linear relationship (r(2)> 0.95) during winter runoff events except for Cd. A good correlation (r (2)> 0.90) was also found for the summer period for Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn. It is suggested that the metal pollutant load during winter could be assessed indirectly by measurement of TSS.

Keyword
de-icing salt; Event Mean Concentration; metal pollution; total suspended solids; storm water
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5522 (URN)10.1007/s11270-006-9289-5 (DOI)000245853500016 ()2-s2.0-34247507788 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100712. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100712.Available from: 2006-03-22 Created: 2006-03-22 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
4. Treatment of road runoff with sedimentation: estimation of total suspended solids removal and the effect of seasonal conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of road runoff with sedimentation: estimation of total suspended solids removal and the effect of seasonal conditions
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7160 (URN)
Note
QC 20100712Available from: 2007-05-21 Created: 2007-05-21 Last updated: 2010-07-12Bibliographically approved
5. Removal of heavy metals from road runoff by filtration in granular slag columns
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Removal of heavy metals from road runoff by filtration in granular slag columns
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7161 (URN)
Note

QC 20100712

Available from: 2007-05-21 Created: 2007-05-21 Last updated: 2016-06-08Bibliographically approved
6. Seasonal generation and characteristics of sediment in a stormwater pond
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seasonal generation and characteristics of sediment in a stormwater pond
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7162 (URN)
Note
QC 20100712Available from: 2007-05-21 Created: 2007-05-21 Last updated: 2010-07-12Bibliographically approved

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