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The effect of soaking on segregation and primary-carbide dissolution in an ingot-cast bearing steel.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Casting of Metals. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9673-3791
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

In this work the segregation in the cast- and hot worked structure, as well as the effects of soaking on macro and micro segregation, in hypereutectoid bearing steel produced by ingot casting were studied. Samples were selected from ingots that where either as cast or soaked for twenty hours. Two similar bearing steel grades were used for this investigation. For the as cast ingot, samples were selected from both A-segregation channel regions and the matrix region. Samples were also selected from hot-worked bars originating from ingots that had been soaked for four hours or twenty hours.

Both micro and macro examinations of the microstructures were conducted and compared. In addition, a segregation analysis of the substitutional solute elements was performed using EDX equipment mounted on a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). EMPA mapping of the composition pattern in the bulk, as well as the carbides, was conducted. Precipitation of M3C, M2C and M6C was observed. The carbides at A-segregation channels were found to have a different morphology to those precipitated in the bulk matrix. After soaking at 1200oC for 4 hours, all the primary carbides are dissolved.

Keyword [en]
Cast structure, segregations, carbides, soaking time, ingot, ball bearing steel
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Metallurgical process science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228382OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-228382DiVA, id: diva2:1209601
Note

QC 20180523

Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Some aspects of convection as well as graphite and carbide formations during casting.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Some aspects of convection as well as graphite and carbide formations during casting.
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

It is an established fact that segregation during casting affects the physical properties of carbon-based ferro alloys; this motivates the study of the segregation behaviour of carbon and carbide-forming solute elements. In this context, this thesis investigates two different situations: the effects of cooling rate and turbulence on the precipitation behaviour of the graphite nodules in nodular cast iron; the nature of carbide precipitation in a bearing steel grade and the effects of subsequent soaking on these carbides.

The structures of boiling water reactor inserts cast by the uphill and downhill casting of nodular cast iron were examined. The samples were taken from representative locations in the top, middle and bottom cross sections of the castings. It was observed that in uphill-cast inserts the nodules were larger but fewer in number the bottom section, whereas in downhill-cast inserts the nodules in the bottom section were smaller, but greater in number. Variation in volume fraction of the graphite nodules across the inserts was also observed. The probable cause of this variation was the difference in cooling rate in different sections of the insert. Between the steel tubes located at the central part of the casting, the fraction of graphite was lower, which could be the result of carburization of the steel tubes.

To study the effects of melt stirring during the solidification of nodular cast iron, several experiments were conducted at variable cooling rates and for different stirring times. Examination of the microstructure was conducted using Light Optical Microscope (LOM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It was observed that during stirring the melt oxidized and oxide nuclei were formed. The number of nucleation sites for the precipitation of graphite nodules increased, which raised the nodule count and the fraction of the graphite precipitated. The matrix transformed from pearlite to ferrite, which could be due to the fact that more carbon had diffused out of the matrix.

The segregation behaviour in hypereutectoid bearing steel produced by ingot casting was also studied. The effects of soaking on micro and macro segregation was investigated in samples taken from as cast and soaked ingots; emphasis was laid on the bulk matrix and A-segregation channels. Samples were also taken from ingots which were soaked and then hot worked. The micro and macro examination of the microstructure was conducted using LOM and SEM. Quantitative and qualitative composition analysis was performed using Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and an electron micro probe analyzer (EMPA). It was observed that M3C, M2C and M6C had precipitated. The carbide morphology in the bulk matrix was different to that in the A-segregation channels. All the primary carbides in the bulk matrix were found to have dissolved after 4 hours of soaking at 1200oC.

Abstract [sv]

Det är ett faktum att segringar som uppstår under gjutning påverkar materialegenskaperna hos kolbaserade järnlegeringar; detta utgör motivationen till studien av segringsuppträdandet hos kol och karbidbildande ämnen. Denna avhandling behandlar två olika aspekter inom ramen för detta ämne: påverkan av kylningshastighet och turbulens på kärnbildningen av grafitnoduler i nodulärt gjutjärn samt karbidbildning i kullagerstål och dess påverkan på den efterföljande värmebehandlingen av dessa karbider.

Strukturen hos rör till vattenkokare som tillverkats av nodulärt gjutjärn som gjutits med fyllning från botten eller från toppen undersöktes. Prover togs från representativa tvärsnittspositioner från toppen, mitten och botten av de gjutna ämnena. Resultaten visade att användandet av bottenfyllda kokiller gav upphov till större men färre karbider i nedre delen av ämnet, medans användandet av toppfyllda kokiller gav upphov till mindre men fler karbider i nedre delen av ämnet. Variationer av volymfraktionen av grafitnoduler längs tvärsnitten observerades också. Den mest sannolika orsaken till denna variation var skillnaden i kylhastighet i de olika områdena av tvärsnitten. Hos rör tillverkade av det centrala delen av ämnet så var fraktionen grafit lägre, vilket kan bero på en uppkolning av rören.

Ett flertal experiment utfördes med varierande kylningshastigheter och olika omrörningstider för att studera inverkan av omrörning av smältan på stelningen av nodulärt gjutjärn. Studier av mikrostrukturen genomfördes med ljusoptisk mikroskopi och svepelektronmikroskopi. Resultaten visade att smältan oxiderades under omrörningen, vilket resulterade i bildandet av oxider. Detta ledde till en ökning av kärnbildningsområden för grafitnoduler, vilket ledde till en ökning av antalet noduler samt fraktionen av grafit som fälldes ut. Strukturen omvandlades från perlit till ferrit, vilket troligen orsakades av att kol hade diffunderat ut från strukturen.

Segringsbeteendet hos hypereutektoida kullagerstål tillverkade genom götgjutning undersöktes också. Effekten av värmebehandling på mikro- och makrosegringar undersöktes i prover tagna från gjutna och värmebehandlade ämnen. Fokus var på att studera strukturen i ämnena samt A-segringar. Dessutom togs prover från ämnen som först värmebehandlats och därefter varmbearbetats. Både mikro- och makroundersökningar av mikrostrukturen utfördes med ljusoptisk mikroskopi och svepelektronmikroskopi. Dessutom så genomfördes kvantitativa sammansättningsbestämningar med energidispersiv röntgenspektroskopi och elektronmikroprobsanalys. Resultaten visade att M3C, M2C och M6C karbider hade fällts ut. Karbidmorfologin i huvuddelen av strukturen skiljde sig från den som återfanns i A-segringar. Samtliga primära karbider i huvuddelen av strukturen hade lösts upp efter 4 timmars värmebehandling vid 1200oC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SWEDEN: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 80
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2018:31
Keyword
carbides, heat treatment, cast iron, ball bearing steel, casting, cooling rate, structure analysis, nodule distribution, melt stirring, nuclei, karbider, värmebehanding, gjutjärn, kullagerstål, gjutning, kylningshastighet, strukturanalys, nodulefördelning, smältrörelse, kärnor.
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Metallurgical process science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228388 (URN)978-91-7729-830-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-06-12, Sal M131 Sefström, BRINELLVÄGEN 23, STOCKHOLM, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC 20180523

Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved

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