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Interpenetrated Networks of Nanocellulose and Polyacrylamide with Excellent Mechanical and Absorptive Properties
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8194-0058
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8622-0386
2018 (English)In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 303, no 5, article id 1700594Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Composites based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) aerogels and polyacrylamide are prepared and exhibit robust mechanical, water retaining, and re-swelling capacities. Furthermore, their swelling behavior is not affected by an increased ionic strength of the aqueous phase. These unprecedented IPNs combine the water retaining capacity of the polyacrylamide with the mechanical strength provided by the CNF aerogel template. The CNF aerogel/polyacrylamide composites exhibit a compressive stress at break greater than 250% compared with a neat polyacrylamide hydrogel. Furthermore, the composites retain their wet compression properties after drying and re-swelling, whereas the neat polyacrylamide hydrogels fail at a significantly lower stress and strain after drying and re-swelling. These composite materials highlight the potential of CNF aerogels to strengthen the mechanical properties and reduce the number of fracture defects during the drying and re-swelling of a hydrogel. These composites show the potential of being optimized for a plethora of applications, especially in the hygiene field and for biomedical devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018. Vol. 303, no 5, article id 1700594
Keywords [en]
CNF aerogels, composites, hydrogels, polyacrylamide
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228438DOI: 10.1002/mame.201700594ISI: 000432026700007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85046904921OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-228438DiVA, id: diva2:1210668
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20180529

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Strategies for Molecular Engineering of Macroscopic Adhesion and Integrity Focusing on Cellulose Based Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategies for Molecular Engineering of Macroscopic Adhesion and Integrity Focusing on Cellulose Based Materials
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Many aspects of modern human life pose a strain on the delicate ecosystems around us. One example is marine litter – mainly various plastic items – which accumulate in the marine environment, where they cause problems for the fauna, such as ingestion and entanglement.The widely used plastics offer many advantages for packaging, such as low cost and easy processing into many shapes. However, in addition to their low biodegradability leading to their persistence and accumulation in nature, they are largely manufactured from petroleum,a non‐renewable resource. Clearly, it would be highly desirable to exchange the petroleum‐based materials for biodegradable ones from renewable resources. Cellulose, as the most abundant biopolymer, is one choice. There are however challenges in terms of replacing currently used plastics with cellulosic materials. One is the low ductility and formability of cellulose. Various efforts are undertaken to increase the formability of cellulose. One approach to increase the renewable fraction within a material is to utilise the intrinsic stiffness and strength of cellulose to increase the structural integrity of a composite. To fully optimise these types of materials, a fundamental understanding of the interaction across interfaces within the material is essential. The main objective in this thesis was to elucidate strategies to measure, to tune and to control the interaction across interfaces. Specific polymers were designed and synthesised which could be used to modify surfaces to achieve a wet adhesion as high as that of mussel foot protein. Many properties of the joint were tuneable by varying length and structure of the polymer and amount of polymer deposited on the surfaces. A method to accurately evaluate interfacial adhesion between a chemically modified cellulose material and another surface was successfully developed, using nanometre smooth cellulose probes exhibiting bulk material properties. Two composite materials containing cellulose as reinforcing element were successfully prepared,utilising different strategies to control and enhance the interaction between the composite constituents. Together, these findings contribute to the knowledge of how to evaluate and control the interaction across an interface.

Abstract [sv]

Vår moderna livsstil utsätter ekosystemen runtomkring oss för stora påfrestningar. Ett exempel bland många är all den plast som ackumuleras i världshaven och ställer till stora problem för vattenlevande organismer. Plaster har många olika användningsområden, bland annat som förpackningsmaterial, då det är relativt enkelt att framställa produkter i många olika former till ett lågt pris. Däremot är de flesta plaster som idag används storskaligt inte nedbrytbara i naturen, och tillverkas från råvara som inte är förnyelsebar. Av dessa skäl vore det önskvärt att byta ut de traditionella plastmaterialen mot andra material som är biologiskt nedbrytbara och från förnyelsebara källor. Cellulosa, det material som tillverkas av levande organismer i störst skala, är en klar kandidat. Detfinns dock utmaningar med att byta ut plaster mot cellulosa, såsom cellulosans låga töjbarhet och formbarhet. Det pågår forskning som syftar till att öka töjbarheten och formbarheten på olika sätt. En sätt att öka mängden förnyelsebar råvara i ett producerat material är att utnyttja cellulosans styvhet och styrka för att förbättra den mekaniska hållfastheten hos en komposit. För att till fullo utnyttja cellulosans potential krävs en grundläggande förståelse för interaktionen över gränsskikt mellan olika komponenter inom ett material. Den här avhandlingens huvudsakliga syfte vara att ta fram strategier för att mäta och styra interaktionen över ett gränsskikt. Polymerer, dvs. långa kedjelika molekyler, designades och framställdes. Dessa polymerer kunde användas för att modifiera ytor och uppnå en vidhäftningsförmåga i vått tillstånd som var lika stark som hos musselfotprotein. Många egenskaper hos fogen kunde finjusteras genom att variera längd och struktur hos polymeren och mängdpolymer som applicerades på ytorna. En metod för att tillförlitligt utvärdera interaktionen mellan en kemiskt modifierad cellulosayta och en annan yta utarbetades, genom att använda mycket släta cellulosasfärer (ytråhet på nanometerskala) och samtidigt bulkegenskaper hosmaterialet. Två kompositmaterial med cellulosa som förstärkande komponenet framställdes, där olika strategier utnyttjades för att kontrollera och förbättra interaktionen mellan komponenterna i kompositmaterialet. Sammantaget bidrar detta till kunskapen om hur interaktionen över ett gränsskikt kan styras och mätas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 51
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2019:63
Keywords
blockcopolymer, cellulose, adhesion, ATRP, micelle
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Fibre and Polymer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263075 (URN)978-91-7873-353-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-22, Q2, Malvinas väg 10, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-10-29 Created: 2019-10-29 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved

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Träger, AndreaCarlmark, AnnaWågberg, Lars

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