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Environmentally friendly utilization of biomass
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The thesis deals with various ways of utilization of biomass. Chapter 1 compares three biomass types: birch wood Betula sp., marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, and terrestrial moss Pleurozium schreberi, as precursors for preparation of biosorbents for removal of copper ions from diluted water solutions. Small sample doses (0.5 g/100ml) of the biosorbents prepared from alga and moss enabled more than 90 % removal of Cu (II) ions from diluted water solutions (5-20 mg/l). The sample from birch wood was less effective. The maximum sorption capacities (Xm) determined from the experimental equilibrium isotherms by applying the Langmuir model showed that the alga had the best copper-binding ability (Xm = 23.4 mg/g), followed by the moss (Xm = 11.1 mg/g), and the sawdust (Xm = 4.9 mg/g). The performance of the biosorbent prepared from birch was not satisfactory. The regeneration of the sorbents from alga and moss was performed using diluted HCl as eluent. No visible damages or performance losses were detected after five sorptiondesorption cycles.

Chapter 2 deals with MnOx-Pd/Alumina-La catalysts for abatement of the emissions from wood combustion. Of primary interest is the calcination temperature used in preparation of the catalysts. Several catalysts are prepared using various calcination temperatures, 500, 600, 700 and 800 oC for 4 h in air and their activities and stabilities are compared. The activity tests were performed using gaseous mixtures containing combustibles representative for the flue gases from wood combustion, carbon monoxide (2500 ppm), methane (200 ppm) and naphthalene (50 ppm). The catalytic oxidation tests were performed in presence of 10 % O2, 12 % H20, 12 % CO2 and N2 (balance). The concentrations of the components in the gaseous mixture and the total flow of the mixture correspond to those in the flue gases from combustion (gas flow 2.5 l/min corresponding to a space velocity of approximately 20000 h-1). In presence of the catalysts carbon monoxide (CO) and naphthalene (C10H8) ignite almost simultaneously in the interval 150-200 ºC and are totally converted at temperatures a little above 200 ºC. The light-off temperatures of methane (CH4) are in the interval 600-650 ºC, and total conversion is reached at around 700 ºC. The most suitable calcination temperature for the catalysts prepared here is 700 ºC. Lower temperatures, 500 and 600 ºC, seem to result in formation of less stable catalysts. The catalysts calcined at higher temperature, 800 ºC, have stable performance in repeated tests, but lower activity.

Chapter 3 presents results from literature study on corrosion and deposit formation in combustion of biofuels. Contributing to understanding the reasons for corrosion and the methods for its abatement are the primary goals. The scope is limited to deeper insight of the role of chlorine and alkali in combustion of biomass and the possibilities for hampering their corrosive effects. The role of additives decreasing the corrosion and deposit formation as well as the effect of water and the prospective for availability of low-chlorine biofuels have also been examined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , xii, 87 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2007:27
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4438ISBN: 978-91-7178-666-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4438DiVA: diva2:12311
Presentation
2007-06-08, Rum 593, KTH, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, 10:10
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101105Available from: 2007-06-15 Created: 2007-06-15 Last updated: 2010-11-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Comparison of different types of biomasses for copper biosorption
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of different types of biomasses for copper biosorption
2007 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 99, no 7, 25559-2565 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three biomass, birch wood Betula sp., marine brown alga Fucus vesiculosus, and terrestrial moss Pleurozium schreberi, have been compared as raw materials for preparation of biosorbents for removal of copper ions from diluted water solutions. Small sample doses (0.5 g/100 ml) of the biosorbents prepared from alga and moss enabled more than 90% removal of Cu(II) ions from diluted water solutions (5-20 mg/l). The sample from sawdust was less effective.A pseudo-second-order rate model properly described the experimental kinetic data for the biosorbents. The maximum sorption capacities (X,) determined from the experimental equilibrium isotherms by applying the Langmuir model showed that the alga had the best copper-binding ability (X-m = 23.4 mg/g), followed by the moss (X-m = 11.1 mg/g), and the sawdust (X-m = 4.9 mg/g). No visible damages or performance losses were detected for the alga and moss after five sorption-desorption cycles using diluted HCl as eluent.

Keyword
biosorption, birch, brown alga, terrestrial moss, heavy metals, Cu(II) ion, water treatment
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7328 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2007.04.036 (DOI)000253850100064 ()2-s2.0-38949135499 (Scopus ID)
Note

Uppdaterad från accepted till published(20101105) QC 20150720

Available from: 2007-06-15 Created: 2007-06-15 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Laboratory tests of catalysts for total oxidation of combustibles representative for flue gases from combustion of wood
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laboratory tests of catalysts for total oxidation of combustibles representative for flue gases from combustion of wood
2004 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7329 (URN)
Conference
International Scientific Conference of Mechanical Engineering, Santa Clara, Cuba 9th to 11th of November, 2004
Note

QC 20101105

Available from: 2007-06-15 Created: 2007-06-15 Last updated: 2016-06-01Bibliographically approved
3. Catalytic oxidation of combustibles representative of flue gases from wood combustion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catalytic oxidation of combustibles representative of flue gases from wood combustion
2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7330 (URN)
Conference
Seventh European Congress on Catalysis, 28 August - 1 September 2005, Sofia, Bulgaria
Note

QC 20101105

Available from: 2007-06-15 Created: 2007-06-15 Last updated: 2016-06-01Bibliographically approved

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