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Dynamic Vehicle-Track Interaction of European Standard Freight Wagons with Link Suspension
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Railway Technology.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The link suspension is the most prevailing suspension system for freight wagons in Central and Western Europe. The system design is simple and has existed for more than 100 years. However, still its characteristics are not fully understood. This thesis investigates the dynamic performance of freight wagons and comprises five parts:

In the first part a review of freight wagon running gear is made. The different suspension systems are described and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

The second part focuses on the lateral force-displacement characteristics of the link suspension. Results from stationary measurements on freight wagons and laboratory tests of the link suspension characteristics are presented. To improve the understanding of various mechanisms and phenomena in link suspension systems, a simulation model is developed.

In the third part the multibody dynamic simulation model is discussed. The previous freight wagon model developed at KTH is able to explain many of the phenomena observed in tests. In some cases, however, simulated and measured running behaviour differ. Therefore, a new simulation model is presented and validated against on-track test results. The performance of standard two-axle freight wagons is investigated. The most important parameters for the running behaviour of the vehicle are the suspension characteristics. The variation in characteristics between different wagons is large due to geometrical tolerances of the components, wear, corrosion, moisture or other lubrication. The influence of the variation in suspension characteristics and other parameters on the behaviour of the wagon, on tangent track and in curves, is discussed. Finally, suggestions for improvements of the system are made.

A majority of the traffic related track deterioration cost originates from freight traffic. With heavier and faster freight trains the maintenance cost is likely to increase. In the fourth part the possibility to improve ride comfort and reduce track forces on standard freight wagons with link suspension is discussed. The variation of characteristics in link suspension running gear is considerable and unfavourable conditions leading to hunting are likely to occur. Supported by on-track tests and multibody dynamic simulations, it is concluded that the running behaviour of two-axled wagons with UIC double-link suspension as well as wagons with link suspension bogies (G-type) can be improved when the running gear are equipped with supplementary hydraulic dampers.

Finally in the fifth part the effects of different types of running gear and operational conditions on the track deterioration marginal cost — in terms of settlement in the ballast, component fatigue, wear and RCF — is investigated. Considerable differences in track deterioration cost per produced ton-km for the different types of running gear are observed. Axle load is an important parameter for settlement and component fatigue. Also the height of centre of gravity has significant influence on track deterioration, especially on track sections with high cant deficiency or cant excess.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , x, 34 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2007:36
Keyword [en]
railway; freight wagon; running gear; link suspension; laboratory test;, stiffness; dry friction; hysteresis; simulation; vehicle-track interaction, multibody; simulation; MBS
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4461ISBN: 978-91-7178-727-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4461DiVA: diva2:12382
Public defence
2007-08-29, F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100802Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-08-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Freight Wagon Link Suspension
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Freight Wagon Link Suspension
2006 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 220, no 4, 361-372 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Link suspension is the most prevailing suspension system for two-axle freight wagons and still frequently used for four-axle freight wagons in central and western Europe. The system design is simple and has existed for more than 100 years. However, still, the characteristics are not fully understood. This article focuses on the lateral characteristics of the link suspension. First, results from stationary measurements on freight wagons and laboratory tests on single links are presented. Then, a simulation mathematical model is proposed. Finally, the influence of various parameters on the link characteristics is investigated. With the developed simulation model, many of the stability problems of link suspension running gears can be explained, but further research is needed to fully understand the characteristics and to be able to recommend improvements. From the tests, it also becomes obvious that the characteristics of different links can vary significantly from each other depending on age and maintenance status.

Keyword
Freight wagon; Friction damping; Hysteresis; Link suspension; Non-linear dynamics; Running gear; Stiffness; Suspension; Wheel-rail dynamics
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7370 (URN)10.1243/09544097JRRT75 (DOI)000243454500003 ()2-s2.0-34247134506 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100802Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Influence of link suspension characteristics variation on two-axle freight wagon dynamics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of link suspension characteristics variation on two-axle freight wagon dynamics
2006 (English)In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 44, no Supplement 1, 415-423 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The link suspension is the most prevailing suspension system for freight wagons in central and western Europe. Link suspension systems have strong non-linear characteristics including a hysteresis loop. The loop exhibits usually three characteristic sections with different tangential stiffnesses. The actual contact geometry of the links and end bearings has a significant influence on the characteristics. By wear in ordinary service. the contact geometry changes considerably, thus causing the characteristics to change. In summary, it appears that the link suspension characteristics are very sensitive to several factors. being hard to control in the real world of freight wagon operations. The various stiffnesses and hysteresis loops are found to have a strong influence on the ride qualities of vehicles. This paper presents non-linear multibody simulations investigating these matters. As long as the characteristics cannot be controlled within closer limits than found in this study, there is a strong need for the sensitivity analysis to be made, both in predictive multibody simulations of vehicle dynamics as well as for verification and acceptance tests.

Keyword
Dynamics; Freight wagon; Link suspension; Ride quality; Simulation; Test; Automobile suspensions; Dynamics; Freight cars; Hysteresis; Hysteresis loops; Magnetic materials; Sensitivity analysis; Stiffness
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7371 (URN)10.1080/00423110600872416 (DOI)000244729300040 ()2-s2.0-65249090788 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100802Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Multibody simulation model for freight wagons with UIC link suspension
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multibody simulation model for freight wagons with UIC link suspension
2007 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The previous freight wagon model developed at KTH is able to explain many of the phenomena observed in tests. In some cases, however, simulated and measured running behaviour differ. Therefore, in this paper a new simulation model is presented and validated with on-track test results. The performance of standard two-axle freight wagons is investigated. The most important parameters for the running behaviour of the vehicle are the suspension characteristics. The variation in characteristics between different wagons is large due to geometrical tolerances of the components, wear, corrosion, moisture or other lubrication. The influence of the variation in suspension characteristics and other parameters on the behaviour of the wagon on tangent track and in curves is discussed. Finally, suggestions for improvements of the system are made.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. 110 p.
Series
Trita-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2006:102
Keyword
railway, freight wagon, running gear, link suspension, dynamic, simulation
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4493 (URN)
Note
QC 20100802Available from: 2007-09-20 Created: 2007-09-20 Last updated: 2010-08-02Bibliographically approved
4. New Simulation Model for Freight Wagons with UIC Link Suspension
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Simulation Model for Freight Wagons with UIC Link Suspension
2008 (English)In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 46, no Suppl. S, 695-704 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Previous freight wagon model developed at KTH is able to explain many of the phenomena observed in tests. In some cases. however, simulated and measured running behaviour differ. Therefore, in this paper, a new simulation model is presented and validated with on-track test results. The performance of standard two-axle freight wagons is investigated. The most important parameters for the running:behaviour of the vehicle are the suspension characteristics. The variation in characteristics between different wagons is large due to geometrical tolerances of the components, wear, corrosion, moisture or other lubrication. The influence of the variation in suspension characteristics and other Parameters oil the behaviour of the wagon on tangent track and in curves is discussed. Finally, suggestions for improvements of the system are made.

Keyword
freight wagon, link suspension, dynamics, ride quality, modelling, simulation, test
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Fordonsteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7373 (URN)10.1080/00423110802036976 (DOI)000263476500054 ()2-s2.0-51449120478 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100802. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100802. 20th Symposium of the International-Association-for-Vehicle-System-Dynamics, Berkeley, CA, AUG 13-17, 2007Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Improving Ride Comfort in Freight Wagons with Link Suspension Running Gear using Hydraulic Dampers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving Ride Comfort in Freight Wagons with Link Suspension Running Gear using Hydraulic Dampers
2007 (English)In: ZEV Rail Glasers Annalen, ISSN 1618-8330, Vol. 131, no Suppl., 230-240 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A majority of the traffic related track deterioration cost originates from freight traffic, With heavier and faster freight trains the maintenance cost Is likely to increase. The present paper focuses on the possibility to improve ride comfort and reduce track forces on standard freight wagons with link suspension. The variation of characteristics in link suspension running gear is considerable and unfavourable conditions leading to hunting are likely to occur. Supported by on-track tests and multibody dynamic simulations it is concluded that the running behaviour of two-axle wagons with UIC double-link suspension as well as wagons with link suspension bogies (G-type) can be improved when the running gear are equipped with supplementary hydraulic dampers.

Keyword
Cargo aircraft; Computer simulation; Damping; Gears; Hydraulic equipment; Freight traffic; Freight wagons; Hydraulic dampers; Multibody dynamic simulations
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7374 (URN)2-s2.0-34547309655 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100802. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published 20100802. Konferens: The 37 Tagung Moderne ScheinenfahrzeugeAvailable from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-08-02Bibliographically approved
6. On the influence of Freight Traffic Operational Conditions on Track Deterioration Cost
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the influence of Freight Traffic Operational Conditions on Track Deterioration Cost
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Heavy Haul Conference, pp. 445-452, Kiruna, June 11-13, 2007, 2007, Vol. 12, no 2, 445-452 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In order to increase the understanding of the running behaviour of freight wagons and the interaction between vehicles and track, a research project was started at KTH in 1996. The background to the initiation of the project were plans to increase axle load, loading gauge and speed of freight trains to make freight traffic on rail more competitive. In the present paper, the effect of different types of running gear and operational conditions on the track deterioration marginal cost in terms of settlement in the ballast, component fatigue and wear and RCF are investigated. Considerable differences in track deterioration cost per produced ton-km for the different types of running gear are observed. Axleload is an important parameter for settlement and component fatigue. Also the height of centre of gravity has significant influence on track deterioration, especially on track sections with high cant deficiency or cant excess.

Keyword
Freight wagons; Rail vehicle dynamics; Simulations; Track deterioration; Axle loads; Centre of gravity; Freight traffic; Freight trains; Freight wagon; Marginal costs; Operational conditions; Rail vehicle dynamics; Running gear; Track deterioration
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7375 (URN)
Conference
International Heavy Haul Conference,2007
Note

QC 20100802. Konferens: The International Heavy Haul Conference

QC 20151223

Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2015-12-23Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf