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Combined partial nitritation and Anammox biofilm system as a sustainable solution for supernatant treatment
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
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2007 (English)In: Water Practice and Technology, ISSN 1751-231X, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, as the effluent water regulations become more stringent, there is a need to treat wastewater in the most efficient manner and according to sustainability principles. One of the possibilities to meet this challenge is treatment of side streams, which are usually returned to the main influent of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) increasing the total load. Following processes occurring in natural ecosystems a new biological technology - combination of partial nitritation and Anammox processes - for treatment of nitrogen-rich supernatant coming from digested sludge dewatering has been developed. The first stage of the process is an oxidation of half of the ammonium to nitrite (partial nitritation process). The following stage - Anammox process - is an anaerobic oxidation of ammonium and nitrite nitrogen to dinitrogen gas. The process has been successfully tested in a technical-scale pilot plant with a continuous supply of supernatant at Himmerfjärden WWTP. Kaldnes rings were provided for biofilm growth. Almost two-year experiences in operation of the two-stage process have been presented in this paper. The results showed that a proper adjustment of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the bulk liquid and a pH value drop in the partial nitritation reactor is essential to obtain the ammonium-to-nitrite ratio (NAR) in the effluent close to 1.3 as required for the Anammox process. It took four months to recover the Anammox bacteria activity after NO2-N inhibition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 2, no 1
Keywords [en]
Anammox; deammonification; digester supernatant; partial nitritation
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7377OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7377DiVA, id: diva2:12384
Note

QC 20100819

Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2017-06-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Performance and control of biofilm systems with partial nitritation and Anammox for supernatant treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance and control of biofilm systems with partial nitritation and Anammox for supernatant treatment
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Separate treatment of supernatant with dewatering of digested sludge with application of partial nitritation/Anammox process is assessed to be a cost-effective way to remove about 10-15% of influent nitrogen and, thereby, facilitate possibilities to reach required effluent requirements from the plant. The combined partial nitritation/Anammox process can be performed in two separate reactors or in one-stage. Both process options have been investigated in technical- and laboratory-scale pilot plants with moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) filled with Kaldnes rings.

Use of the two-stage process resulted in a very stable partial nitritation with a suitable nitrite to ammonium ratio (NAR) for the following Anammox step. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH value were identified as key factors for the partial nitritation process. The Anammox process could also be operated in a stable way. A high nitrite concentration, however, inhibited the process and the time for recovering the process at low nitrite concentration was about four months. Seeding of the partial nitritation reactor with Anammox bacteria (the recirculation of Anammox effluent to the nitritation reactor) turned out to be a simple and easy method to enable creation of an oxic-anoxic biofilm in one reactor. Studies have shown that such a one-stage system would be the best choice for full-scale implementation due to significantly higher nitrogen removal rates and easier operation. The partial nitritation process was found to be the rate-limiting reaction to perform the overall nitrogen removal.

Measurements of conductivity and pH were suitable parameters for monitoring of the nitrogen reactions. A control and monitoring system was developed both for two-stage and one-stage technology. The system was mainly based on relationships between conductivity and inorganic nitrogen components, while in the one-stage technology measurements are used of both conductivity and pH and their relationships with inorganic nitrogen compounds. Alkalinity was an additional measured parameter suitable for process control and monitoring. Theoretically calculated values of conductivity were in good agreement with experimentally obtained results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. p. xiv, 63
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2007:1035
Keywords
alkalinity, Anammox, conductivity, partial nitritation, pH, removal rate, supernatant
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4462 (URN)978-91-7178-729-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-09-21, lecture Hall F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
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Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-08-19Bibliographically approved

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