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A one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox processes in the moving-bed biofilm reactor
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
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2007 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, Vol. 55, no 8-9, 19-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ability of bacterial cultures to create biofilm brings a possibility to enhance biological 0 0 wastewater treatment efficiency. Moreover, the ability of Anammox and Nitrosomonas species to grow within the same biofilm layer enabled a one-stage system for nitrogen removal to be designed. Such a system, with Kaldnes rings as carriers for biofilm growth, was tested in a technical pilot plant scale (2.1 m(3)) at the Himmerfjarden Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) in the Stockholm region. The system was directly supplied with supernatant originating from dewatering of digested sludge containing high ammonium concentrations. Nearly 1-year of operational data showed that during the partial nitritation/Anammox process, alkalinity was utilised parallel to ammonium removal. The process resulted in a small pH drop, and to its relationship with conductivity was found. The nitrogen removal rate for the whole period oscillated around 1.5g N m(-2) d(-1) with a maximum value equal to 1.9 g N m(-2) d(-1). Parallel to the pilot plant experiment a series of batch tests were run to investigate the influence on removal rates of different dissolved oxygen 4, conditions and addition of nitrite. The highest nitrogen removal rate (5.2 g N m(-2) d(-1)) in batch tests was obtained when the Anammox process was stimulated by the addition of nitrite. In the simultaneous partial nitritation and Anammox process, the partial nitritation was the rate-limiting step.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 55, no 8-9, 19-26 p.
Keyword [en]
Anammox; biofilm; digester supernatant; nitrogen removal rate; partial nitritation
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7381DOI: 10.2166/wst.2007.237ISI: 000246652900004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-34249695868OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7381DiVA: diva2:12388
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Performance and control of biofilm systems with partial nitritation and Anammox for supernatant treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance and control of biofilm systems with partial nitritation and Anammox for supernatant treatment
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Separate treatment of supernatant with dewatering of digested sludge with application of partial nitritation/Anammox process is assessed to be a cost-effective way to remove about 10-15% of influent nitrogen and, thereby, facilitate possibilities to reach required effluent requirements from the plant. The combined partial nitritation/Anammox process can be performed in two separate reactors or in one-stage. Both process options have been investigated in technical- and laboratory-scale pilot plants with moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) filled with Kaldnes rings.

Use of the two-stage process resulted in a very stable partial nitritation with a suitable nitrite to ammonium ratio (NAR) for the following Anammox step. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH value were identified as key factors for the partial nitritation process. The Anammox process could also be operated in a stable way. A high nitrite concentration, however, inhibited the process and the time for recovering the process at low nitrite concentration was about four months. Seeding of the partial nitritation reactor with Anammox bacteria (the recirculation of Anammox effluent to the nitritation reactor) turned out to be a simple and easy method to enable creation of an oxic-anoxic biofilm in one reactor. Studies have shown that such a one-stage system would be the best choice for full-scale implementation due to significantly higher nitrogen removal rates and easier operation. The partial nitritation process was found to be the rate-limiting reaction to perform the overall nitrogen removal.

Measurements of conductivity and pH were suitable parameters for monitoring of the nitrogen reactions. A control and monitoring system was developed both for two-stage and one-stage technology. The system was mainly based on relationships between conductivity and inorganic nitrogen components, while in the one-stage technology measurements are used of both conductivity and pH and their relationships with inorganic nitrogen compounds. Alkalinity was an additional measured parameter suitable for process control and monitoring. Theoretically calculated values of conductivity were in good agreement with experimentally obtained results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. xiv, 63 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2007:1035
Keyword
alkalinity, Anammox, conductivity, partial nitritation, pH, removal rate, supernatant
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4462 (URN)978-91-7178-729-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-09-21, lecture Hall F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-08-19Bibliographically approved
2. Comparative study on different Anammox systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative study on different Anammox systems
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The legal requirements for wastewater discharge into environment, especially to zones exposed to eutrophication, lately became stricter. Nowadays wastewater treatment plants have to manage with the new rules and assure better biogenic elements’ removal, in comparison with the past. There are some well-known methods of diminishing concentrations of these compounds, but they are ineffective in case of nitrogen-rich streams, as landfill leachate or reject waters from dewatering of digested sludge. This wastewater disturbs conventional processes of nitrification-denitrification and raise necessity of building bigger tanks. The partial nitritation followed by Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) process appear to be an excellent alternative for traditional nitrification/denitrification. The process was investigated in three different reactors – Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) and Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC). The process was evaluated in two options: as a two-stage process performed in two separate reactors and as a one-stage process. The two-step process, in spite of very low nitrogen removal rates, assured very high nitrogen removal efficiency, exceeding even 90% in case of the MBBR. However, obtained results revealed that the one-step system is a better option than the two-step system, no matter, what kind of nitrogen-rich stream is taken into consideration. Moreover, the one-step process was much less complicated in operation. Performed research confirmed a hypothesis, that the oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid and the nitrite production rate are the limiting factors for the Anammox reaction in a single reactor. In order to make a quick and simple determination of bacteria activity, the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) tests were shown as an excellent tool for evaluation of the current bacteria activity reliably, and without a need of using expensive reagents. It was also shown, that partial nitritation/Anammox process, could be successfully applied at temperatures much lower than the optimum value. Performed Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses, proved that the Anammox bacteria were mainly responsible for the nitrogen removal process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. xii, 72 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1053
Keyword
Anammox; biofilm system; landfill leachate; nitrogen removal; reject water; removal rates
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11933 (URN)978-91-7415-501-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-02-12, V3, top floor, Teknikringen 72, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2010-01-27 Created: 2010-01-27 Last updated: 2010-07-07Bibliographically approved

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