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Performance and control of biofilm systems with partial nitritation and Anammox for supernatant treatment
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Separate treatment of supernatant with dewatering of digested sludge with application of partial nitritation/Anammox process is assessed to be a cost-effective way to remove about 10-15% of influent nitrogen and, thereby, facilitate possibilities to reach required effluent requirements from the plant. The combined partial nitritation/Anammox process can be performed in two separate reactors or in one-stage. Both process options have been investigated in technical- and laboratory-scale pilot plants with moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) filled with Kaldnes rings.

Use of the two-stage process resulted in a very stable partial nitritation with a suitable nitrite to ammonium ratio (NAR) for the following Anammox step. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH value were identified as key factors for the partial nitritation process. The Anammox process could also be operated in a stable way. A high nitrite concentration, however, inhibited the process and the time for recovering the process at low nitrite concentration was about four months. Seeding of the partial nitritation reactor with Anammox bacteria (the recirculation of Anammox effluent to the nitritation reactor) turned out to be a simple and easy method to enable creation of an oxic-anoxic biofilm in one reactor. Studies have shown that such a one-stage system would be the best choice for full-scale implementation due to significantly higher nitrogen removal rates and easier operation. The partial nitritation process was found to be the rate-limiting reaction to perform the overall nitrogen removal.

Measurements of conductivity and pH were suitable parameters for monitoring of the nitrogen reactions. A control and monitoring system was developed both for two-stage and one-stage technology. The system was mainly based on relationships between conductivity and inorganic nitrogen components, while in the one-stage technology measurements are used of both conductivity and pH and their relationships with inorganic nitrogen compounds. Alkalinity was an additional measured parameter suitable for process control and monitoring. Theoretically calculated values of conductivity were in good agreement with experimentally obtained results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , xiv, 63 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2007:1035
Keyword [en]
alkalinity, Anammox, conductivity, partial nitritation, pH, removal rate, supernatant
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4462ISBN: 978-91-7178-729-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4462DiVA: diva2:12390
Public defence
2007-09-21, lecture Hall F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-08-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Pilot–plant experiments with combined nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) in biofilm system
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilot–plant experiments with combined nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) in biofilm system
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2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition, 2004, CD-ROM p.Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7376 (URN)
Conference
The 4th IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition 19-24 September 2004, Marrakech, Morocco
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-08-19Bibliographically approved
2. Combined partial nitritation and Anammox biofilm system as a sustainable solution for supernatant treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined partial nitritation and Anammox biofilm system as a sustainable solution for supernatant treatment
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2007 (English)In: Water Practice and Technology, ISSN 1751-231X, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nowadays, as the effluent water regulations become more stringent, there is a need to treat wastewater in the most efficient manner and according to sustainability principles. One of the possibilities to meet this challenge is treatment of side streams, which are usually returned to the main influent of Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) increasing the total load. Following processes occurring in natural ecosystems a new biological technology - combination of partial nitritation and Anammox processes - for treatment of nitrogen-rich supernatant coming from digested sludge dewatering has been developed. The first stage of the process is an oxidation of half of the ammonium to nitrite (partial nitritation process). The following stage - Anammox process - is an anaerobic oxidation of ammonium and nitrite nitrogen to dinitrogen gas. The process has been successfully tested in a technical-scale pilot plant with a continuous supply of supernatant at Himmerfjärden WWTP. Kaldnes rings were provided for biofilm growth. Almost two-year experiences in operation of the two-stage process have been presented in this paper. The results showed that a proper adjustment of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the bulk liquid and a pH value drop in the partial nitritation reactor is essential to obtain the ammonium-to-nitrite ratio (NAR) in the effluent close to 1.3 as required for the Anammox process. It took four months to recover the Anammox bacteria activity after NO2-N inhibition.

Keyword
Anammox; deammonification; digester supernatant; partial nitritation
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7377 (URN)
Note

QC 20100819

Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2017-06-14Bibliographically approved
3. Application of conductivity measurements for monitoring of nitrogen removal in the partial nitritation/Anammox process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of conductivity measurements for monitoring of nitrogen removal in the partial nitritation/Anammox process
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2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the IWA Specialized Conference: Nutrient Management in Wastewater Treatment, Processes and Recycle Streams, 2005, 717-724 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7378 (URN)
Conference
The IWA Specialized Conference,19-21 September 2005, Krakow, Poland
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-08-19Bibliographically approved
4. Temperature as a factor influencing the Anammox process performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temperature as a factor influencing the Anammox process performance
2006 (English)In: Young Researchers 2006, London: IWA Pub. , 2006, no 12, 51-58 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: IWA Pub., 2006
Series
Water and Environmental Management Series, ISSN 1476-1785 ; 12
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7379 (URN)1843395134 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-08-19Bibliographically approved
5. Nitrogen removal rates at a technical-scale pilot plant with the one-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen removal rates at a technical-scale pilot plant with the one-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process.
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2006 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 54, no 8, 209-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Traditional nitrification/denitrification is not suitable for nitrogen removal when wastewater contains high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and low concentrations of biodegradable carbon. Recently, a deammonification process was developed and proposed as a new technology for treatment of such streams. This process relies on a stable interaction between aerobic bacteria Nitrosomonas, that accomplish partial nitritation and anaerobic bacteria Planctomycetales, which conduct the Anammox reaction. Simultaneous performance of these two processes can lead to a complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in one single reactor. The experiments where nitrogen was removed in one reactor were performed at a technical-scale moving-bed pilot plant, filled with Kaldnes rings and supplied with supernatant after dewatering of digested sludge. It was found that a nitrogen removal rate obtained at the pilot plant was 1.9 g m(-2) d(-1). Parallel to the pilot plant run, a series of batch tests were carried out under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Within the batch tests, where the pilot plant's conditions were simulated, removal rates reached up to 3g N m(-2) d(-1). Moreover, the batch tests with inhibition of Nitrosomonas showed that only the Anammox bacteria (not anoxic removal by Nitrosomonas) are responsible for nitrogen removal.

Keyword
Anammox; CANON; deammonification; digested supernatant; nitrogen removal
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7380 (URN)10.2166/wst.2006.816 (DOI)000242677200025 ()2-s2.0-33845288661 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707. Conference: 5th World Water Congress of the International-Water-Association. Beijing, PEOPLES R CHINA. SEP 10-14, 2006Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. A one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox processes in the moving-bed biofilm reactor
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox processes in the moving-bed biofilm reactor
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2007 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 55, no 8-9, 19-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ability of bacterial cultures to create biofilm brings a possibility to enhance biological 0 0 wastewater treatment efficiency. Moreover, the ability of Anammox and Nitrosomonas species to grow within the same biofilm layer enabled a one-stage system for nitrogen removal to be designed. Such a system, with Kaldnes rings as carriers for biofilm growth, was tested in a technical pilot plant scale (2.1 m(3)) at the Himmerfjarden Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) in the Stockholm region. The system was directly supplied with supernatant originating from dewatering of digested sludge containing high ammonium concentrations. Nearly 1-year of operational data showed that during the partial nitritation/Anammox process, alkalinity was utilised parallel to ammonium removal. The process resulted in a small pH drop, and to its relationship with conductivity was found. The nitrogen removal rate for the whole period oscillated around 1.5g N m(-2) d(-1) with a maximum value equal to 1.9 g N m(-2) d(-1). Parallel to the pilot plant experiment a series of batch tests were run to investigate the influence on removal rates of different dissolved oxygen 4, conditions and addition of nitrite. The highest nitrogen removal rate (5.2 g N m(-2) d(-1)) in batch tests was obtained when the Anammox process was stimulated by the addition of nitrite. In the simultaneous partial nitritation and Anammox process, the partial nitritation was the rate-limiting step.

Keyword
Anammox; biofilm; digester supernatant; nitrogen removal rate; partial nitritation
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7381 (URN)10.2166/wst.2007.237 (DOI)000246652900004 ()2-s2.0-34249695868 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100707Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
7. Conductivity, alkalinity and pH: important tools for monitoring the nitrogen removal in one- and two-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conductivity, alkalinity and pH: important tools for monitoring the nitrogen removal in one- and two-stage partial nitritation/Anammox process
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7382 (URN)
Note
QC 20100819Available from: 2007-07-13 Created: 2007-07-13 Last updated: 2010-08-19Bibliographically approved

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