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Recent Developments of Crystallographic Analysis Methods in the Scanning Electron Microscope for Applications in Metallurgy
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1102-4342
2018 (English)In: Critical reviews in solid state and materials sciences, ISSN 1040-8436, E-ISSN 1547-6561, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 455-474Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The field of metallurgy has greatly benefited from the development of electron microscopy over the last two decades. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has become a powerful tool for the investigation of nano- and microstructures. This article reviews the complete set of tools for crystallographic analysis in the SEM, i.e., electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), and electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI). We describe recent relevant developments in electron microscopy, and discuss the state-of-the-art of the techniques and their use for analyses in metallurgy. EBSD orientation measurements provide better angular resolution than spot diffraction in TEM but slightly lower than Kikuchi diffraction in TEM, however, its statistical significance is superior to TEM techniques. Although spatial resolution is slightly lower than in TEM/STEM techniques, EBSD is often a preferred tool for quantitative phase characterization in bulk metals. Moreover, EBSD enables the measurement of lattice strain/rotation at the sub-micron scale, and dislocation density. TKD enables the transmitted electron diffraction analysis of thin-foil specimens. The small interaction volume between the sample and the electron beam enhances considerably the spatial resolution as compared to EBSD, allowing the characterization of ultra-fine-grained metals in the SEM. ECCI is a useful technique to image near-surface lattice defects without the necessity to expose two free surfaces as in TEM. Its relevant contributions to metallography include deformation characterization of metals, including defect visualization, and dislocation density measurements. EBSD and ECCI are mature techniques, still undergoing a continuous expansion in research and industry. Upcoming technical developments in electron sources and optics, as well as detector instrumentation and software, will likely push the border of performance in terms of spatial resolution and acquisition speed. The potential of TKD, combined with EDS, to provide crystallographic, chemical, and morphologic characterizations of nano-structured metals will surely be a valuable asset in metallurgy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC , 2018. Vol. 43, no 6, p. 455-474
Keywords [en]
Electron microscopy, steels, metals, EBSD, TKD, ECCI
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-231642DOI: 10.1080/10408436.2017.1370576ISI: 000435672700001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85042031269OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-231642DiVA, id: diva2:1245056
Note

QC 20180904

Available from: 2018-09-04 Created: 2018-09-04 Last updated: 2018-09-04Bibliographically approved

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Borrajo-Pelaez, RafaelHedström, Peter

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