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Development of Techniques to Produce Nickel Coated Composite Materials as well as Hollow Nickel Fibres and Kinetic Study of the Process Involved
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Micro-Modelling.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The present thesis was mainly to study the preparation of nickel composite materials by chemical plating process. Nickel coated boron nitride particles, nickel coated spherical silica particles and nickel viscose composite fibres were prepared. Both experiment and model development were carried out to study the kinetics of the processes. Preparation of hollow nickel fibres was also investigated.

NiSO4-(NH4)2SO4-NH3·H2O-N2H4·H2O was found a suitable system for nickel plating. This system could be employed in preparing nickel coating layer on surface of boron nitride particles, spherical silica powder and viscose fibres. The main factors which could affect the plating process were investigated. The optimum conditions were suggested for different substrate materials based on the experimental results.

It was found that Pd on the surface of substrate materials acted as an active center for nickel deposition at the initial stage of the process. Thereafter, Ni itself would act as an active center to catch Ni from the solution through the reaction: Ni2+ + 2H* ad ⇒ Ni + 2H+. The rate of the process was found to be controlled by the reaction at the interface under the present experimental conditions. A kinetic model was developed on the basis of the mechanism study. The model predictions were found to be in agreement with the experimental data for different substrate materials. Since the kinetic model does not have any parameters related to the shape and surface area of the substrate, it could be used as a general model to describe the processes controlled by interface reaction with growing interface area.

Hollow nickel fibers were prepared by thermal decomposition method from nickel viscose composite. The experiments showed that viscose filling could be removed by heat treatment in air atmosphere. Experiments showed that hollow nickel fiber could be prepared by direct thermal decomposition in air flow at low temperature, e.g. 573 K. But slight surface oxide is inevitable. Decomposition of the viscose filling could also be carried at higher temperature. However, serious oxidation of nickel would also take place during the decomposition. To remove nickel oxide, reduction by hydrogen gas could be applied.

Preliminary effort was made to extend the application of the present method to prepare copper viscose composite fibres. Promising result was obtained. More detailed study is required to confirm the applicability of the technique.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , viii, 47 p.
Series
Theses in philosophy from the Royal Institute of Technology, ISSN 1650-8831 ; 2007:51
Keyword [en]
Nickel, Chemical plating, Kinetics, Model, Hollow nickel fibres, Thermal decomposition
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4478ISBN: 978-91-7178-736-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4478DiVA: diva2:12451
Public defence
2007-09-21, Salongen, KTHB, Osquars Backe 31, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100804Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2010-08-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Nickel coating on hexagonal boron nitride particles by chemical plating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nickel coating on hexagonal boron nitride particles by chemical plating
2007 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 38, no 2, 149-157 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, a new method was developed to produce nickel-coated boron nitride particles, which could be used as a raw material for making abradable seal layer in gas turbine. Hydrazine was employed as the reducing agent, ammonia solution as the complexing agent, nickel sulfate as the main salt, and ammonia-ammonium sulfate as the buffer system. Thermodynamic consideration showed that the hydrazine reduction could take place in the ammonia-ammonium Sulfate system. The applicability of the ammonia-ammonium sulfate system was further confirmed by experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses showed that the coated nickel layer was dense without microcracks. The suitable operation conditions were found to be (1) temperature = 343 to 353 K, (2) [Ni](2+) 0.1 to 0.2 mol/L, (3) concentration of ammonia = 90 to 100 mL/L, (4) mass ratio of Ni2+/BN - 1/3, and (5) mole fraction ratio of hydrazine/Ni2+ = 2. The system was found to be more stable in comparison with the sulfate-tartrate system.

Keyword
Ammonia; Boron nitride; Hydrazine; Microcracks; Nickel; Plating; Scanning electron microscopy; Complexing agents; Nickel coating; Nickel sulfate; Inorganic coatings
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7422 (URN)10.1007/s11663-007-9030-9 (DOI)000247008600001 ()2-s2.0-34250889569 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100804Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. A kinetic study of nickel coating on boron nitride micro-particles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A kinetic study of nickel coating on boron nitride micro-particles
2007 (English)In: International Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 1862-5282, Vol. 98, no 6, 526-534 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, the mechanism of nickel coating on BN particles by hydrazine reduction was studied. A nickel sulfate - ammonium sulfate - ammonia - hydrazine hydrate plating system was employed. It was found that Pd on the surface of BN particles acted as an active center for nickel deposition at the initial stage of the process. Thereafter, Ni itself would act as an active center to catch Ni from the solution through the reaction: Ni2+, + 2H(ad)(*) double right arrow Ni + 2H(+). The rate of the process was found to be controlled by the reaction at the interface under the present experimental conditions. A kinetic model was proposed on the basis of the experimental results. The model predictions were found to be in agreement with the experimental data.

Keyword
Chemical plating; Kinetics; Model; Nickel coated BN particle; Deposition; Hydrates; Hydrazine; Nickel plating; Reduction; Boron nitride
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7423 (URN)000247623300013 ()2-s2.0-34347249569 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100804Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2010-08-04Bibliographically approved
3. Nickel coating on some organic and carbon fibres by chemical plating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nickel coating on some organic and carbon fibres by chemical plating
2008 (English)In: International Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 1862-5282, Vol. 99, no 1, 84-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new method was developed to produce nickel coated fibres, which could be used as a raw material for making lightweight electrodes in nickel based secondary batteries. Hydrazine was employed as the reducing agent, ammonia solution as a complexing agent, nickel sulphate as the source of nickel ions and ammonia-ammonium sulphate as the buffer system. While the experiments confirmed that the ammonia-ammonium sulphate system could be applied for plating nickel on viscose, polyester, polyamide and carbon fibres, viscose fibre was found to be the more suitable material. The suitable operating conditions were reported.

Keyword
Chemical plating; Nickel coating; Viscose fibre; Ammonia; Coating techniques; Electrodes; Hydrazine; Nickel; Secondary batteries; Carbon fibers
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7424 (URN)10.3139/146.101605 (DOI)000252804500014 ()2-s2.0-38849130626 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100804. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published 20100804.Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2010-08-04Bibliographically approved
4. A kinetic study of nickel deposition on spherical silica particles and viscose fibers by chemical plating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A kinetic study of nickel deposition on spherical silica particles and viscose fibers by chemical plating
2009 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 40, no 4, 523-532 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, nickel silica composite powder was prepared using an ammonia-ammonium sulfate system. Optical microphotographs showed that the coated nickel layer was dense and complete. Suitable operation conditions were reported. The composite nickel viscose fiber prepared by this plating system was also investigated. The mechanism of nickel coating on spherical silica particles and viscose fibers by hydrazine reduction was studied. It was found that tiny Pd spots on the surface of particles or fibers acted as active centers for nickel deposition at the initial stage of the process. Thereafter, Ni itself would act as an active center for catching Ni from the solution through the reaction Ni2+ + 2H (ad) (*) -> Ni + 2H(+). The rate of the process was found to be controlled by the reaction at the interface, under the present experimental conditions. Kinetic models were proposed on the basis of the experimental results. The model predictions were found to be in agreement with the experimental data.

Keyword
Active center; Ammonium Sulfate; Chemical plating; Experimental conditions; Experimental data; Hydrazine reduction; Initial stages; Kinetic models; Kinetic study; Model prediction; Nickel coating; Nickel deposition; Nickel layers; Operation conditions; Plating systems; Silica composites; Spherical silica particles; Viscose fibers; Ammonium compounds; Fibers; Kinetic theory; Nickel alloys; Palladium; Silica
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7425 (URN)10.1007/s11663-009-9252-0 (DOI)000268496400010 ()2-s2.0-68549088743 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100804. Uppdaterad från In press till Published 20100804.Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Thermodynamic consideration and experimental study on preparation of hollow nickel fibres
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermodynamic consideration and experimental study on preparation of hollow nickel fibres
2008 (English)In: International Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 1862-5282, Vol. 99, no 9, 1023-1031 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present work, heat-treated hollow nickel fibres were prepared by thermal decomposition from nickel viscose composite. The thermodynamic properties of viscose fibre, namely standard enthalpy of formation, heat capacity, absolute entropy, and standard Gibbs free energy of formation were estimated by bond enthalpy. Thermodynamic analysis showed that viscose fibres could decompose at any reachable temperature, when the kinetic conditions were favourable. The results of thermogravimetric analysis experiments indicated that viscose filling could be removed by heat treatment in air. The thermogravimetric analysis results along with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray energy dispersive spectrum analysis showed that hollow nickel fibre could be prepared by direct thermal decomposition in air flow at low temperatures, e.g. 573 K. Decomposition of the viscose filling could also be carried out at higher temperatures. However, serious oxidation of nickel would also take place during the decomposition. To remove nickel oxide, reduction by hydrogen gas could be applied.

Keyword
Bond enthalpy method; Hollow nickel fibre; Thermal decomposition; Decomposition; Enthalpy; Fibers; Gravimetric analysis; Hydrogen; Light; Microscopic examination; Nanostructured materials; Nickel; Nickel alloys; Nickel oxide; Photoresists; Pyrolysis; Reaction kinetics; Spectrum analyzers; Thermoanalysis; Thermodynamic properties; Thermodynamics; X ray diffraction analysis; Absolute entropies; Air flows; Bond enthalpy method; Direct thermal decompositions; Energy dispersive; Experimental studies; Gibbs free energy of formations; Heat capacities; Higher temperatures; Hollow nickel fibre; Hydrogen gases; Kinetic conditions; Low temperatures; Standard enthalpy of formations; Thermal decomposition; Thermal decompositions; Thermodynamic analysis; X-ray diffractions
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7426 (URN)10.3139/146.101726 (DOI)000259966100014 ()2-s2.0-54249091080 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100804. Uppdaterad från In press till Published 20100804.Available from: 2007-08-31 Created: 2007-08-31 Last updated: 2011-10-03Bibliographically approved

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