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Strategies of Urban Planning for Low-Carbon and Energy Efficient Cities: the Practice in the South Area of Hexi New Town,Nanjing,China
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
2013 (English)In: Urban Development Studies, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 94-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Much energy is consumed and carbon emission is released by cities.The carbon emission will keep in increasing with the urbanization in China.Current research about energy efficiency of cities mainly focused on energy efficiency of city subsystems,but less on their interactive influence.To measure energy efficiency carbon dioxide emission should be introduced as an indicator.Urban planning is a preferred method for energy efficiency of cities by adjusting city forms and the relationship between city subsystems.The strategies of urban planning can be classified at two sets: decreasing the energy demands of cities and increasing the efficiency of energy utilization.The strategies to reduce the energy demands can also be subdivided into reducing building energy consumption and reducing transportation energy consumption.The strategies were practiced at the urban design for the south region of Hexi New City District,Nanjing,and the guidelines for environmental construction in the new city district,which will be an example for the new urban construction in the fast urbanized China.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 20, no 2, p. 94-104
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235691OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-235691DiVA, id: diva2:1252672
Note

QC 20181002

Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. An analysis of architectural and urban planning strategies for developing energy efficient cities in China
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of architectural and urban planning strategies for developing energy efficient cities in China
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents a detailed analysis of architecture and urban planning strategies for developingenergy-efficient cities in a Chinese context. The overall aim of the work is to examine how Chineseurbanisation and city construction can be improved from an energy-saving perspective.

China is in the process of transforming from an agricultural to an industrial country, and it willconsume more energy than ever before. Creating energy-efficient cities is an important part ofsustainable energy development. City development is a complicated process that affects the interestsof many stakeholders, and the strategies for establishing energy-efficient cities can be directed at twolevels: components and systems.

The main components of energy-efficient cities are energy-efficient buildings, which have been a hottopic in recent years. In China, a number of new, stricter codes for energy-efficient buildings arebeing issued. In addition, many research institutes have developed Building EnvironmentalAssessment (BEA) methods, where energy efficiency is an important factor in the models. Varioustechnical solutions for energy efficiency are also being developed. This thesis analyses differentsolutions and their applicability within the Chinese context.

The investigation in Nanjing clearly demonstrated that system-level strategies are vital for achievingenergy-efficient cities. The Swedish energy efficient models of the housing development HammarbySjöstad and the smaller scale Eco-villages were analysed to see if these solutions were compatiblewith the Chinese context. The strategies to reduce energy demands can be further subdivided intoreducing building energy consumption and reducing transportation energy consumption. Thesestrategies were implemented into the urban design for the southern region of Hexi New City District,Nanjing, which will be used as an example of new urban construction in a rapidly urbanising China.

This thesis proposes a route for developing energy-efficient cities. In the construction of Chinesecities, technological strategies for energy-efficient buildings have been implemented successfully, butthe systems structure of such cities requires special attention, particularly in the context of rapidurbanisation. Urban planning with energy considerations must be seen as equally important to thedevelopment of energy-efficient buildings. City planners should play a key role in this process, notby saving energy directly, but indirectly, by influencing the behaviour of persons living, working andtravelling within their city. Local and regional governments, which have special powers in China,should take responsibility for policymaking, demonstration, standardisation and education. In thebroad context of intelligent urban planning, technological, economic, and social strategies for energyefficientbuildings will all play a positive role.

China’s government has started the process of improving urban energy efficiency. However, thisprocess will be difficult and progress will be slow. The thesis discusses the conditions in the Chinesecontext and identifies problems that require solutions in the near future.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen presenterar en detaljerad analys av arkitektur- och stadsplaneringsstrategier för attutveckla energieffektiva städer i ett kinesiskt sammanhang. Det övergripande syftet med arbetet äratt undersöka hur kinesisk urbanisering och stadsbyggande kan förbättras För att minskaenergianvändning. Kina omvandlas snabbt från ett jordbrukssamhälle till ett industriland, vilket göratt energikonsumtionen ökar. Att skapa energieffektiva städer är en viktig del av hållbarstadsutveckling. Stadens utveckling är en komplicerad process som påverkar många intressenter, ochstrategierna för att skapa energieffektiva städer kan styras på två nivåer: komponenter och system.

Huvudkomponenterna i energieffektiva städer är energieffektiva byggnader, som har varit ett hettämne de senaste åren. I Kina utfärdas ett antal nya, strängare koder för energieffektiva byggnader.Dessutom har många forskningsinstitut utvecklat metoder för byggmiljöbedömning (BEA), därenergieffektivitet är en viktig faktor i modellerna. Olika tekniska lösningar för energieffektivitetutvecklas också. Denna avhandling analyserar olika lösningar och deras tillämplighet inom detkinesiska sammanhanget.

Undersökningen i Nanjing visade tydligt att systemnivåstrategier är avgörande för att uppnåenergieffektiva städer. De svenska energieffektiva modellerna av bostadsutvecklingen HammarbySjöstad och de småskaliga ekosamhällena analyserades för att se om dessa lösningar var kompatiblamed det kinesiska sammanhanget. Strategierna för att minska energibehovet i städer innehållerenergiförbrukningen i byggnader och energi för transporter. Dessa strategier utvecklades inomsamhällsplanering för den södra delen av Hexi New City District, Nanjing. Detta område kommeratt användas som ett exempel på ny stadsbyggnad i ett snabbt urbaniserande Kina.

Denna avhandling föreslår en väg för att utveckla energieffektiva städer. I byggandet av kinesiskastäder har tekniska strategier för energieffektiva byggnader genomförts framgångsrikt, mensystemstrukturen hos sådana städer kräver särskild uppmärksamhet, särskilt i samband med densnabba urbanisering som sker. Stadsplanering med energianvändning måste ses som lika viktig förutvecklingen som energieffektiva byggnader. Stadsplanerare bör spela en nyckelroll i denna process,inte genom att spara energi direkt, men indirekt, genom att påverka beteendet hos personer som bor,arbetar och reser inom deras stad. Lokala och regionala regeringar, som har särskilda befogenheter iKina, bör ta ansvar för beslutsfattande, demonstration, standardisering och utbildning. I det bredasammanhanget av intelligent stadsplanering, tekniska, ekonomiska och sociala strategier förenergieffektiva byggnader kommer alla aktörer att spela en positiv roll.

Kinas regering har påbörjat processen att förbättra städernas energieffektivitet. Denna processkommer dock att vara svår och framstegen kommer att gå långsamt. Avhandlingen diskuterarförhållandena i det kinesiska sammanhanget och identifierar problem som kräver lösningar inom ensnar framtid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 63
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1820
Keywords
Energy efficiency, Nanjing, China, urban planning, passive house, low exergy system, Building Environmental Assessment, LCA, Swedish housing, Hammarby Sjöstad, eco-village, game theory, systems theory, soft systems methodology
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Industrial Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235651 (URN)978-91-7729-964-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-23, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20181002

Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved

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