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Optical properties of active photonic materials
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Because of the generation of polaritons, which are quasiparticles possessing the characteristics of both photonics and electronics, active photonic materials offer a possible solution to transfer electromagnetic energy below the diffraction limit and further increase the density of photonic integrated circuits. A theoretical investigation of these exciting materials is, therefore, very important for practical applications.

Four different kinds of polaritons have been studied in this thesis, (1) surface polaritons of negative-index-material cylindric rods, (2) exciton polaritons of semiconductor quantum dots, (3) localized plasmon polaritons of metallic nanoshells, and (4) surface plasmon polaritons of subwavelength hole arrays in thin metal films. All these types of polaritons were found to strongly affect the optical properties of the studied active photonic materials. More specifically, (1) for two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of negative-index-material cylindric rods, the coupling among surface polaritons localized in the rods results in dispersionless anti-crossing bands; (2) for three-dimensional diamond-lattice quantum-dot photonic crystals, the exciton polariton resonances lead to the formation of complete band gaps in the dispersion relationships; (3) for metallic nanoshells, the thickness of the metal shell strongly modifies the localized plasmon polaritons, and therefore influences the degree of localization of the electromagnetic field inside the metallic nanoshells; (4) for subwavelength hole arrays in thin metal films, high-order surface-polariton Bloch waves contribute significantly to the efficient transmission.

To numerically simulate these active photonic materials, we introduced three approaches, (1) an extended plane-wave-based transfer-matrix approach for negative- index-material media, (2) a plane-wave method for semiconductor quantum-dot photonic crystals, and (3) an auxiliary-differential-equation finite-difference time- domain approach for semiconductor quantum-dot arrays. A brief perspective is also given at the end of this thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , 78 p.
Keyword [en]
nanophotonics, plasmonics
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4497ISBN: 978-91-7178-763-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4497DiVA: diva2:12548
Public defence
2007-10-15, FA32, Main Building, AlbaNova, AlbaNova, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2007-09-25 Created: 2007-09-25 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Extended plane-wave-based transfer-matrix approach to simulating dispersive photonic crystals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended plane-wave-based transfer-matrix approach to simulating dispersive photonic crystals
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2006 (English)In: Solid State Communications, ISSN 0038-1098, E-ISSN 1879-2766, Vol. 139, no 7, 328-333 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been difficult to compute the band structures and transmission spectra for photonic crystals (PCs) with dispersive components included in the periodic units. Here we show that by using an extended plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method, we are able to formulate the problem for computing optical properties of dispersive PCs, including magnetic and left-handed PCs. This approach is very general, since it can treat PCs with arbitrary Bravais lattice composed of materials with arbitrary dielectric permittivities and magnetic permeabilities. Combined with the supercell method, this method can further simulate defective PCs such as PC-based waveguides and microcavities.

Keyword
photonic crystals, electromagnetic, permeability, physics; Computer simulation; Dielectric properties; Dispersion (waves); Magnetic devices; Magnetic permeability; Optical properties; Spectrum analysis; Waveguides; Bravais lattice; Electromagnetic; Photonic crystals; Plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-15990 (URN)10.1016/j.ssc.2006.06.036 (DOI)000240540200002 ()2-s2.0-33746256121 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Optical properties of two-dimensional negative-phase-velocity-medium photonic crystals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical properties of two-dimensional negative-phase-velocity-medium photonic crystals
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2006 (English)In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 73, no 6, 066625- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By an extended plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method, the photonic band structure and the corresponding transmission spectrum have been calculated for a two-dimensional photonic crystal composed of negative-phase-velocity-medium (NPVM) cylindrical rods. Dispersionless anticrossing bands in the two-dimensional NPVM periodic structure are generated by the couplings among surface polaritons localized in the NPVM rods. In part of the negative-phase-velocity frequency region, the photonic band structures of the NPVM photonic crystal are characterized by a topographical continuous dispersion relationship accompanied by many anticrossing bands. The effect of the filling fraction of the NPVM rods on the optical properties of photonic crystals has also been studied.

Keyword
Band structure; Optical properties; Photons; Spectrum analysis; Velocity measurement; Photonic crystals; Two-dimensional NPVM periodic structure; Crystal structure
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7498 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevE.73.066625 (DOI)000238694200126 ()2-s2.0-33745610054 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2007-09-25 Created: 2007-09-25 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
3. Complete band gaps in three-dimensional quantum dot photonic crystals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complete band gaps in three-dimensional quantum dot photonic crystals
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2006 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 74, no 11, 115325- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nonlocal investigations have been performed about exciton-photon couplings in three-dimensional quantum-dot (QD) photonic crystals and a complete photonic band gap has been found in the band structure of a diamond lattice. The width of such a band gap can be broadened by increasing the filling ratio of the QDs (increasing the QD radius or/and decreasing the lattice constant of the photonic crystal). By decomposing the diamond lattice into two interlacing face-centered-cubic (fcc) sublattices, we have found that by significantly modifying the QD radius in one fcc sublattice (the diamond lattice therefore changed to the zinc blende lattice), the band structure of the zinc blende lattice is in principle the sum of two individual fcc sublattices. However, a huge exciton-photon coupling is observed near the band gaps of the two individual fcc sublattices when the radii of the QDs in the two fcc sublattices approach each other, resulting in the complete band gaps of the diamond structure.

Keyword
lattices, polaritons
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-16017 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.74.115325 (DOI)000240872300089 ()2-s2.0-33748996518 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
4. Finite-difference time-domain simulations of exciton-polariton resonances in quantum-dot arrays
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finite-difference time-domain simulations of exciton-polariton resonances in quantum-dot arrays
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2008 (English)In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 16, no 7, 4507-4519 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optical properties of nanosize quantum-dot (QD) arrays are found to vary significantly around the exciton resonance frequency of the QDs. In order to simulate the interactions between electromagnetic waves and QD arrays, a general auxiliary-differential-equation, finite-difference time-domain approach is introduced and utilized in this article. Using this numerical method, the exciton-polariton resonances of single-layer and double-layer GaAs QD arrays are studied. The optical properties of a single-layer QD array are found to be characterized by the Mie resonance of its constituent QDs, while a double-layer QD array is characterized by the quasi-dipole formed by two QDs positioned in each of the two layers.

Keyword
Excitons; Finite difference time domain method; Optical properties; Semiconductor quantum dots; Exciton-polariton resonances; Quantum-dot arrays; Resonance; article; computer simulation; finite element analysis; light; methodology; surface plasmon resonance; theoretical model; Computer Simulation; Finite Element Analysis; Light; Models, Theoretical; Quantum Dots; Surface Plasmon Resonance
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7500 (URN)10.1364/OE.16.004507 (DOI)000255100400015 ()2-s2.0-41649112952 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150727. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published 20100825.

Available from: 2007-09-25 Created: 2007-09-25 Last updated: 2015-07-27Bibliographically approved
5. Surface-plasmon-assisted electromagnetic field enhancement in semiconductor quantum dots
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface-plasmon-assisted electromagnetic field enhancement in semiconductor quantum dots
2007 (English)In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 87, no 2, 167-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The temporal development of incident electromagnetic plane waves across semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) is analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain method. By coating the QDs using thin metal films, surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be created. As illustration, our modeling approach is applied to fluorescent multiphoton quantum dots made of cadmium sulphide of particular size (3.7 nm) and energy band gap (2.67 eV). When such a QD is coated by a metal film, a dipole-formed SPP is generated at the external surface of the coated QD by the incident electromagnetic wave with a photon energy of 1.34 eV corresponding to a two-photon process. When the thickness of the metal film is 0.37 nm, the peak intensity of the SPP oscillates through both the thin metal film and the core QD, resulting in an electromagnetic field inside the QD enhanced by a factor of 10, and thus an increased two-photon excitation that can be useful for bioimaging applications. Further increasing the metal film thickness blockades the SPP initially generated at the external surface of the coated QD from penetrating through the metal film, reducing the electromagnetic field inside the QD.

Keyword
Charged particles; Computer simulation; Electromagnetic fields; Electromagnetic waves; Surface plasmon resonance; Time domain analysis; Electromagnetic plane waves; Surface plasmon polaritons (SPP); Temporal development; Semiconductor quantum dots
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7501 (URN)10.1007/s00339-006-3838-z (DOI)000249502400006 ()2-s2.0-33947233980 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2007-09-25 Created: 2007-09-25 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
6. Selective excitation of surface-polariton Bloch waves for efficient transmission of light through a subwavelength hole array in a thin metal film
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective excitation of surface-polariton Bloch waves for efficient transmission of light through a subwavelength hole array in a thin metal film
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2007 (English)In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 76, no 3, 035427- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electromagnetic (EM) field was found to be able to transmit efficiently through a subwavelength hole array in a metal thin film at specific resonant frequencies. By analyzing the near-field distributions of EM fields in the array system, as well as the corresponding Fourier spectra, we show that the surface-polariton (SP) Bloch waves focus the energy of the incident plane-wave EM field to the vicinity of the hole at resonances (through SP scattering provided by the periodic hole). Furthermore, the wave vectors of the SP waves that contribute to the focusing effect are quantized as functions of the geometric shape of the holes in such a way that the focusing effect of the EM energy into the hole is maximal. The transmission efficiency and bandwidth at resonances are found to partially depend on the number of SP modes which contribute to the focusing effect.

Keyword
EXTRAORDINARY OPTICAL-TRANSMISSION; PHOTONIC CRYSTALS; PLASMONS
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7502 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.76.035427 (DOI)000248500800147 ()2-s2.0-34547110550 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2007-09-25 Created: 2007-09-25 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved

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