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An experimental study of number concentration gradients of inclusion during deoxidation using inductive and gas stirring
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
2005 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 76, no 7, 481-490 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 Concentration gradients of inclusions during inductive and gas stirring of AISI H13 tool steel in a ladle have been studied using a unique experimental technique at Uddeholm Tooling AB in Sweden. A specially designed sampling equipment, which allows five samples to be taken at the same time and at different depths was used. The aim was to experimentally quantify the existence of inclusion size population gradients in different positions of the steel melt. One experiment was carried out using induction stirring and one using gas stirring. The main findings from the induction stirring experiment was that i) concentration gradients of inclusions exist, ii) the number of inclusions decreases with stirring time in all positions, and iii) that the superficial positions show a more rapid decrease than the deeper ones. The main findings from the gas stirring experiment are that i) concentration gradients of inclusions exist, ii) the superficial positions are mostly affected by the gas plumes, and show a very pronounced decrease of the number of inclusions with stirring time, and iii) the deeper positions and also one of the superficial position (no "3") shows no decreasing trend.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 76, no 7, 481-490 p.
Keyword [en]
ladle, inclusions, deoxidation, stirring, concentration, gradient
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7515ISI: 000230676400002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-22744436228OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7515DiVA: diva2:12563
Note

QC 20100830

Available from: 2004-11-15 Created: 2004-11-15 Last updated: 2014-12-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Growth and removal of inclusions during ladle refining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth and removal of inclusions during ladle refining
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The overall purpose of this thesis work has been to further our understanding of the growth and removal of inclusions in gas- and induction-stirred ladles. The primary focus has been on alumina inclusions.

Growth mechanisms were studied using data from fundamental mathematical models of gas- and induction-stirred ladles. The results showed the turbulence mechanism to be the most dominant in alumina inclusion growth. The dynamic growth and removal of inclusions in a gas-stirred ladle was studied using mathematical modelling. The model results showed concentration gradients of inclusions. The effect was most obvious in the steel flow past the removal sites: top slag, ladle refractory, and gas plume (bubble flotation). A new removal model was developed for large spherical caps bubbles.

In order to verify the predicted concentration gradients for the size population of inclusions, three experiments were carried out in production. The sampling equipment enabled sampling at five different positions and different locations at the same time. The results showed that concentration gradients of inclusions do exist both in induction-stirred and gas-stirred ladles. A theoretical analysis showed that the drag force on the inclusions to be the dominating force and that therefore inclusions follow the fluid flow.

The cluster behaviour of alumina inclusions were examined on steel samples taken in an industrial-scale deoxidation experiment in a ladle. The samples were examined by microscope and the results used to study cluster growth. It was found that there was rapid cluster growth due to collision during stirring and that at the end of the deoxidation experiment a majority of the small inclusions were bound in clusters. The cluster growth data determined using the microscopic results were compared with predicted cluster-growth data. A method was developed for converting the experimental data observed per unit area into data given per unit volume and vice versa. An expression for the collision diameter of the cluster was also developed. The results showed that the predicted cluster growth agreed well with the microscopic observations for the assumptions made in the growth model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Materialvetenskap, 2004
Keyword
Meteorology, inclusions, steel, ladle, cluster growth, modelling, Meteorologi
National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-45 (URN)91-7283-886-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2004-11-15, B3, KTH, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2004-11-15 Created: 2004-11-15 Last updated: 2014-03-20

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