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Large eddy simulation of thermal mixing with conjugate heat transfer at BWR operating conditions
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8743-7157
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4038-4120​
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3016-3698
KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5595-1952
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Thermal fatigue occurs in most metals under cyclic heat loads and can threaten the structural integrity of metal parts. Detailed knowledge of these loads is of utter importance to prevent such issues. In this study, a large eddy simulation (LES) with wall-adapting local eddy viscosity (WALE) subgrid model is performed to better understand turbulent thermal mixing in an annulus with a pair of opposing cold inlets at a low axial level (z = 0.15 m) and with a pair of opposing hot inlets at a higher axial level (z = 0.80 m). Each inlet pair is 90° from each other in the azimuthal direction. Conjugate heat transfer between fluid and structure is accounted for. The geometry simplifies a control-rod guide tube (CRGT) in a boiling water reactor (BWR). LES results are compared with measurement data. This is one of the first times BWR conditions are met in both experiments and LES: pressure equals 7.2 MPa, while the temperature difference between hot and cold inlets reaches 216 K. LES temperatures at the fluid-structure interface are fairly correlated with their experimental equivalents, with regard to mean values, local variances, and dangerous oscillation modes in fatigue-prone areas (z = 0.65-0.67 m). An elastic analysis of the structure is performed to evaluate stress intensities there. From them, cumulative fatigue usage factors are estimated and used as screening criteria in the subsequent frequency analysis of temperature time series at the fluid-structure interface. Cracks are likely to initiate after 97 h.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236767OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-236767DiVA, id: diva2:1257741
Funder
Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, 47385
Note

QC 20181022

Available from: 2018-10-22 Created: 2018-10-22 Last updated: 2018-10-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Experimental and analytical study of thermal mixing at reactor conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and analytical study of thermal mixing at reactor conditions
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

High-cycle thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing of streams at distinct temperatures is an interdisciplinary issue affecting safety and life extension of existing reactors together with the design of new reactors. It is challenging to model damage and thermal loads arising from the above mixing.

In order to collect vast data sets for the validation of codes modeling turbulent thermal mixing under reactor conditions, temperatures were sampled at the inner surface of the vertical annular volume between two concentric 316LN stainless steel tubes. This annulus simplifies that between control-rod guide tube and stem in Swedish boiling water reactors (BWRs) Oskarshamn 3 and Forsmark 3. In 2008, several stems there were reported as broken or cracked from thermal fatigue. Cold water entered the annulus at 333 K, at axial level z = 0.15 m. It moved upward and mixed with hot water, which entered the annulus at 549 K, at z = 0.80 m. Pressure read 7.2 MPa. Hot and cold inlet temperatures and pressure match BWR conditions. The thermocouples attached to the inner tube could only acquire inner-surface temperatures at six locations, so the inner tube was translated and rotated about the z-axis to expand the measurement zone.

Mixing inhomogeneity was estimated from such measurements. In the cases examined, the inner-surface temperatures from areas with the highest mixing inhomogeneity show dominant frequencies lower than ten times the inverse of the experiment time.

The uncertainty of this temperature measurement appears to be equal to 1.58 K.

A large eddy simulation (LES) of mixing in the above annulus was conducted. Experimental boundary conditions were applied. The conjugate heat transfer between water and tubes was modeled. The wall-adapting local eddy viscosity (WALE) subgrid model was adopted. A finite element analysis (FEA) of the inner tube was performed using LES pressure and temperature as loads. Cumulative fatigue usage factors (CUFs) were estimated from FEA stress histories. To this end, the rainflow cycle-counting technique was applied. CUFs are highest between z = 0.65 m and z = 0.67 m. Cracking is predicted to initiate after 97 h. LES and experimental inner-surface temperatures agree reasonably well in relation to mean values, ranges, mixing inhomogeneity, and critical oscillation modes in areas sensitive to fatigue. LES inner-surface temperatures from areas with the highest CUFs show dominant frequencies lower than ten times the inverse of the simulation time.

A robust, effective iterative algorithm for reconstructing the transient temperature field in the inner tube from redundant boundary data was implemented and verified. Temperature-dependent properties were included. Initial conditions and over-specified boundary data in the inverse problem were perturbed with Gaussian noise to check the robustness of the solving method to noise.

Abstract [sv]

Termisk högcykelutmattning på grund av turbulent blandning av flöden av olika temperaturer är en tvärvetenskaplig fråga som har bäring på säkerhet, underhåll och livstidsförlängning av kärnkraftverk i drift tillsammans med utvecklingen av nya reaktorer. Det är utmanande att modellera delskador och termiska belastningar som härrör från denna blandning.

För att samla stora datamängder för validering av koder modellerande turbulent termisk blandning vid reaktordriftförhållanden, mättes temperaturer vid den inre ytan av den vertikala annulära (ringformade) kanalen mellan två koncentriska rör i 316LN rostfritt stål. Denna annulära kanal representerar den verkliga geometrin mellan styrstavsledrör och styrstavsförlängare i svenska kokvattenreaktorer (BWR) Oskarshamn 3 och Forsmark 3. Vid dessa reaktorer uppvisade ett antal styrstavsförlängare sprickbildning till följd av termisk utmattning under år 2008. I den annulära kanalen strömmade kallare vattenflöden vid 333 K, vid axiell nivå z = 0.15 m. Flödena rörde sig uppåt och blandades med varmare vattenflöden, vilka strömmade i den annulära kanalen vid 549 K, vid z = 0.80 m. Trycket sattes till 7.2 MPa. 333 K, 549 K och 7.2 MPa överensstämmer med BWR-förhållanden. Termoelement fastlödda vid det inre röret kunde endast mäta innerytans temperatur på sex platser. För att kunna mäta temperaturen i hela blandningsområdet kunde röret roteras från 0° till 360° och förflyttas vertikalt över en sträcka av 387 mm.

Blandningsinhomogenitet uppskattades från sådana mätningar. I de undersökta fallen visar innerytans temperatur från områden där blandningen är som minst homogen dominerande frekvenser som är lägre än tio gånger inversen till experimenttiden.

Osäkerheten i dessa temperaturmätningar visar sig vara 1.58 K.

En storvirvelsimulering (LES) av blandning i den annulära kanalen utfördes. Experimentella randvillkor applicerades. Den konjugerade värmeöverföringen mellan vatten och rör modellerades. De små virvlarna (oupplösta skalor) approximerades med hjälp av en turbulensmodell kallad WALE, som ger rätt asymptotiskt beteende för turbulent viskositet nära väggen. En finitelementanalys (FEA) av det inre röret utfördes med LES-tryck och temperatur som belastningar. Totala delskador uppskattades från FEA-spänning/tid kurvor. För detta ändamål applicerades regndroppsmetoden. De totala delskadorna når sina högsta värden mellan z = 0.65 m och z = 0.67 m. Sprickinitiering förväntas inträffa efter 97 timmar. Innerytans CFD-temperatur är i en rimlig överensstämmelse med experimentella data med avseende på medelvärde, omfång, blandningsinhomogenitet och kritiska svängande modalfunktioner som utgör temperaturtidsserier i områden som är utsatta för utmattning. Innerytans CFD-temperatur från områden med högsta totala delskador visar dominerande frekvenser som är lägre än tio gånger inversen till simuleringstiden.

En robust, effektiv, iterativ algoritm för att beräkna det transienta temperaturfältet i det inre röret utifrån överflödiga randdata implementerades och verifierades. Temperaturberoende egenskaper inkluderades. Initiala förhållanden och överflödiga randdata i det inversa problemet stördes av gaussiskt brus för att undersöka lösningsmetodens robusthet mot brus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 113
Series
TRITA-SCI-FOU ; 2018:45
Keywords
High-cycle thermal fatigue, Hilbert-Huang transform, large eddy, WALE, rainflow, inverse heat conduction, adjoint conjugate gradient
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology; Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236530 (URN)978-91-7873-001-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-06, FB53, AlbaNova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, 47385
Note

QC 20181022

Available from: 2018-10-22 Created: 2018-10-20 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved

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