Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Nucleation of titanium nanoparticles in an oxygen-starved environment. I: experiments
Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Plasma & Coating Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics. Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Plasma & Coating Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Plasma & Coating Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, Plasma & Coating Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
2018 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 51, no 45, article id 455201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A constant supply of oxygen has been assumed to be necessary for the growth of titanium nanoparticles by sputtering. This oxygen supply can arise from a high background pressure in the vacuum system or from a purposely supplied gas. The supply of oxygen makes it difficult to grow metallic nanoparticles of titanium and can cause process problems by reacting with the target. We here report that growth of titanium nanoparticles in the metallic hexagonal titanium (alpha Ti) phase is possible using a pulsed hollow cathode sputter plasma and adding a high partial pressure of helium to the process instead of trace amounts of oxygen. The helium cools the process gas in which the nanoparticles nucleate. This is important both for the first dimer formation and the continued growth to a thermodynamically stable size. The parameter region, inside which the synthesis of nanoparticles is possible, is mapped out experimentally and the theory of the physical processes behind this process window is outlined. A pressure limit below which no nanoparticles were produced was found at 200 Pa, and could be attributed to a low dimer formation rate, mainly caused by a more rapid dilution of the growth material. Nanoparticle production also disappeared at argon gas flows above 25 sccm. In this case, the main reason was identified as a gas temperature increase within the nucleation zone, giving a too high evaporation rate from nanoparticles (clusters) in the stage of growth from dimers to stable nuclei. These two mechanisms are in depth explored in a companion paper. A process stability limit was also found at low argon gas partial pressures, and could be attributed to a transition from a hollow cathode discharge to a glow discharge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018. Vol. 51, no 45, article id 455201
Keywords [en]
nanoparticles, nucleation, titanium, experiments
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-237083DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aae117ISI: 000446352300001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85055433172OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-237083DiVA, id: diva2:1258194
Note

QC 20181024

Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2020-03-09Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text in DiVA

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records BETA

Brenning, Nils

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Brenning, Nils
By organisation
Space and Plasma Physics
In the same journal
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Physical Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 147 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf