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Unravelling appropriability mechanisms and openness depth effects on firm performance across stages in the innovation process
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Högskolan i Gävle.
Högskolan i Gävle.
2017 (English)In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is to date abundant evidence about the way openness-performance liaisons are shaped, yet parallel streams of research point towards an intricate relationship between appropriability and openness. Accordingly, while openness may reveal ample opportunities, risks of e.g. misappropriation should also be accounted for in open innovation processes, as they might affect performance. Recent research highlights the scarcity of studies investigating openness, appropriability and performance, and suggests a further need to analyze this in different stages of the innovation process. This study therefore aims to investigate the effects of three groups of intellectual property protection mechanisms (formal, semi-formal and informal) and openness (in terms of collaboration depth with eight types of partners) on two types of innovation performance (efficiency and novelty) across innovation phases. The analysis is based on a sample of 340 manufacturing firms from three European countries. Findings show that in early stages of the innovation process, efficiency is positively linked to the use of semi-formal appropriability mechanisms, such as contracts, yet negatively related to the use of formal ones, such as patents. The latter potentially illustrates the high uncertainty and increased risks of imitation or misappropriation in early innovation phases. Informal appropriability mechanisms contribute to novelty in earlier as well as later stages. Results further indicate novelty is explained by university collaboration throughout the innovation process, while competitor collaboration positively associates with novelty in later innovation stages. Vertical collaborations with supplier and customers reveal contrasting effects, which could also have implications linked to imitation risks. Furthermore, the negative effects of formal appropriability mechanisms and supplier collaboration on innovation performance in distinct stages of the innovation process might have implications for the so-called paradox of disclosure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017.
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Management
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238446DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2017.03.014ISI: 000403994000022Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85017525129OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-238446DiVA, id: diva2:1259914
Funder
VINNOVARiksbankens JubileumsfondSwedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
Note

QC 20181214

Available from: 2018-10-31 Created: 2018-10-31 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Knowing the Ropes in Open Innovation: Understanding Tensions through a Paradox Lens
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowing the Ropes in Open Innovation: Understanding Tensions through a Paradox Lens
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The fundamental paradox of disclosure suggested by Kenneth Arrow represents a challenge in contemporary open innovation settings. Potential negative outcomes of this paradox – e.g. misappropriation of ideas – are still not fully avertable. Researchers, practitioners and policy makers strive to untangle tensions related to this paradox, because failure to manage such tensions might entail lost jobs and hampered economic and technological growth.The purpose of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of this paradox by combining three perspectives on tensions in open innovation and applying a paradox lens. The overarching perspective is of value co-creation–value capture. The thesis comprises of five papers that are based on quantitative, qualitative and conceptual studies. The findings reveal: 1) characteristics of tensions; 2) factors that create tensions; and 3) possible solutions and pitfalls to managing said tensions. Findings show that tensions may be managed as paradoxical, dilemmatic or dialectical, depending e.g. on the need to be open or on the overlap between a product’s solution and its characteristics. Moreover, tensions could be spurred by a variety of factors, which may be categorized as: plurality of views, scarcity of resources, change, and combinations thereof (compound factors).Possible solutions to managing tensions include e.g. increasing staff awareness about intellectual property issues or improving collaboration contracts. Possible pitfalls are linked to over-focusing on either co-creating or on capturing value, and also to subsequent tensions. Findings also reveal a category of factors with dual role, which depending on their intensity, may lead to either solutions or to pitfalls. This hints towards additional layers of complexity concerning the paradox of disclosure. The findings contribute to theory on open innovation, appropriability and organizational paradox, and have important implications for practitioners and policy makers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 116
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2018:53
Keywords
tensions, open innovation, paradox of disclosure, value co-creation, value capture, openness, appropriability, intellectual property rights, misappropriation, paradox lens
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Industrial Economics and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238465 (URN)978-91-7873-014-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-23, F3, Lindstetsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-01 Created: 2018-11-01 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textScopushttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/316260822_Unravelling_appropriability_mechanisms_and_openness_depth_effects_on_firm_performance_across_stages_in_the_innovation_process

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Stefan, Ioana

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