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On three different ways to quantify the degree of ionization in sputtering magnetrons
Univ Paris Saclay, LPGP, UMR CNRS 8578, Univ Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay, France..
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics. Univ Paris Saclay, LPGP, UMR CNRS 8578, Univ Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay, France.; Linkoping Univ, Plasma & Coatings Phys Div, IFM Mat Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics. Univ Iceland, Sci Inst, Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik, Iceland..ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8153-3209
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2018 (English)In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 27, no 10, article id 105005Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quantification and control of the fraction of ionization of the sputtered species are crucial in magnetron sputtering, and in particular in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), yet proper definitions of the various concepts of ionization are still lacking. In this contribution, we distinguish between three approaches to describe the degree (or fraction) of ionization: the ionized flux fraction F-flux, the ionized density fraction F-density, and the fraction a of the sputtered metal atoms that become ionized in the plasma (sometimes referred to as probability of ionization). By studying a reference HiPIMS discharge with a Ti target, we show how to extract absolute values of these three parameters and how they vary with peak discharge current. Using a simple model, we also identify the physical mechanisms that determine F-flux, F-density, and a as well as how these three concepts of ionization are related. This analysis finally explains why a high ionization probability does not necessarily lead to an equally high ionized flux fraction or ionized density fraction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2018. Vol. 27, no 10, article id 105005
Keywords [en]
magnetron sputtering, high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), ionization
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238542DOI: 10.1088/1361-6595/aae05bISI: 000447588700002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85056268368OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-238542DiVA, id: diva2:1260977
Note

QC 20181106

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved

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Brenning, NilsRaadu, Michael A.Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas

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