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Optimized Resource Provisioning and Operation Control for Low-power Wide-area IoT Networks
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). (COS)
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). (RS-Lab)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4006-5848
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0525-4491
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Grant-free radio access is a promising solution for reducing energy consumption and access delay in low power wide-area (LPWA) Internet of Things (IoT) networks. This work is devoted to reliability modeling, battery-lifetime analysis, resource provisioning, and operation control for grantfreeIoT networks. Our modeling captures correlation in devices’locations, benefits from 3D (time/frequency/code) interference analysis, and enables coexistence analysis of multi-type IoT technologies. We derive the interplay amongst density of the access points, communication bandwidth, traffic volume, and quality of service (QoS) of communications. Deriving the interplay enables scalability analysis, i.e. it figures out the required increase in device's energy consumption (or access network’s resources) for compensating the increase in traffic volume or QoS demand. Our major contribution consists in deriving traffic loads and respective exchange rates in which, energy and cost resources of devices and the access network, respectively, could be traded to achieve a given level of QoS. We further indicate operation regions in which scaling a parameter turns from being a friend into a foe. Finally, we present energy- and cost-optimized operation control and resource provisioning strategies, respectively. The simulation results confirm tightness of the analytical expressions, and indicate the usefulness of them in planning and operation control of IoT networks.

Keywords [en]
5G, Battery lifetime, Coexistence, Grant-free, Reliability, LPWA IoT.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238675OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-238675DiVA, id: diva2:1261406
Note

QC 20181107

Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Serving IoT Communications over Cellular Networks: Challenges and Solutions in Radio Resource Management for Massive and Critical IoT Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serving IoT Communications over Cellular Networks: Challenges and Solutions in Radio Resource Management for Massive and Critical IoT Communications
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Internet of Things (IoT) communications refer to the interconnections of smart devices, with reduced human intervention, which enable them to participate more actively in everyday life. It is expected that introduction of a scalable, energy efficient, and reliable IoT connectivity solution can bring enormous benefits to the society, especially in healthcare, wellbeing, and smart homes and industries. In the last two decades, there have been efforts in academia and industry to enable IoT connectivity over the legacy communications infrastructure. In recent years, it is becoming more and more clear that the characteristics and requirements of the IoT traffic are way different from the legacy traffic originating from existing communications services like voice and web surfing, and hence, IoT-specific communications systems and protocols have received profound attention. Until now, several revolutionary solutions, including cellular narrowband-IoT, SigFox, and LoRaWAN, have been proposed/implemented. As each of these solutions focuses on a subset of performance indicators at the cost of sacrificing the others, there is still lack of a dominant player in the market capable of delivering scalable, energy efficient, and reliable IoT connectivity. The present work is devoted to characterizing state-of-the-art technologies for enabling large-scale IoT connectivity, their limitations, and our contributions in performance assessment and enhancement for them. Especially, we focus on grant-free radio access and investigate its applications in supporting massive and critical IoT communications. The main contributions presented in this work include (a) developing an analytical framework for energy/latency/reliability assessment of IoT communications over grant-based and grant-free systems; (b) developing advanced RRM techniques for energy and spectrum efficient serving of massive and critical IoT communications, respectively; and (c) developing advanced data transmission/reception protocols for grant-free IoT networks. The performance evaluation results indicate that supporting IoT devices with stringent energy/delay constraints over limited radio resources calls for aggressive technologies breaking the barrier of the legacy interference-free orthogonal communications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 91
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:73
Keywords
5G, Battery lifetime, Grant-based and grant-free access, Massive and critical IoT communications, Radio resource manage
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-238678 (URN)978-91-7729-973-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-23, Sal C, Electrum, Kistagången 16, Kista., Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20181107

Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2018-11-07Bibliographically approved
2. Energy and Delay-aware Communication and Computation in Wireless Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy and Delay-aware Communication and Computation in Wireless Networks
2020 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Power conservation has become a severe issue in devices since battery capability advancement is not keeping pace with the swift development of other technologies such as processing technologies. This issue becomes critical when both the number of resource-intensive applications and the number of connected devices are rapidly growing. The former results in an increase in power consumption per device, and the latter causes an increase in the total power consumption of devices. Mobile edge computing (MEC) and low power wide area networks (LPWANs) are raised as two important research areas in wireless networks, which can assist devices to save power. On the one hand, devices are being considered as a platform to run resource-intensive applications while they have limited resources such as battery and processing capabilities. On the other hand, LPWANs raised as an important enabler for massive IoT (Internet of Things) to provide long-range and reliable connectivity for low power devices. The scope of this thesis spans over these two main research areas: (1) MEC, where devices can use radio resources to offload their processing tasks to the cloud to save energy. (2) LPWAN, with grant-free radio access where devices from different technology transmit their packets without any handshaking process.

In particular, we consider a MEC network, where the processing resources are distributed in the proximity of the users. Hence, devices can save energy by transmitting the data to be processed to the edge cloud provided that the delay requirement is met and transmission power consumption is less than the local processing power consumption. This thesis addresses the question of whether to offload or not to minimize the uplink power consumption in a multi-cell multi-user MEC network. We consider the maximum acceptable delay as the QoS metric to be satisfied in our system. We formulate the problem as a mixed-integer nonlinear problem, which is converted into a convex form using D.C. approximation. To solve the converted optimization problem, we have proposed centralized and distributed algorithms for joint power allocation and channel assignment together with decision-making on job offloading. Our results show that there exists a region in which offloading can save power at mobile devices and increases the battery lifetime.

Another focus of this thesis is on LPWANs, which are becoming more and more popular, due to the limited battery capacity and the ever-increasing need for durable battery lifetime for IoT networks. Most studies evaluate the system performance assuming single radio access technology deployment. In this thesis, we study the impact of coexisting competing radio access technologies on the system performance. We consider K technologies, defined by time and frequency activity factors, bandwidth, and power, which share a set of radio resources. Leveraging tools from stochastic geometry, we derive closed-form expressions for the successful transmission probability, expected battery lifetime, experienced delay, and expected number of retransmissions. Our analytical model, which is validated by simulation results, provides a tool to evaluate the coexistence scenarios and analyze how the introduction of a new coexisting technology may degrade the system performance in terms of success probability, delay, and battery lifetime. We further investigate the interplay between traffic load, the density of access points, and reliability/delay of communications, and examine the bounds beyond which, mean delay becomes infinite.

Abstract [sv]

Antalet anslutna enheter till nätverk ökar. Det finns olika trender som mobil edgecomputing (MEC) och low power wide area-nätverk (LPWAN) som har blivit intressantai trådlösa nätverk. Därför står trådlösa nätverk inför nya utmaningar som ökadenergiförbrukning. I den här avhandlingen beaktar vi dessa två mobila nätverk. I MECavlastar mobila enheter sina bearbetningsuppgifter till centraliserad beräkningsresurser (”molnet”). I avhandlingensvarar vi på följande fråga: När det är energieffektivt att avlasta dessa beräkningsuppgifter till molnet?Vi föreslår två algoritmer för att bestämma den rätta tiden för överflyttning av beräkningsuppgifter till molnet.I LPWANs, antar vi att det finns ett mycket stort antal enheter av olika art som kommunicerar mednätverket. De använder s.k. ”Grant-free”-åtkomst för att ansluta till nätverket, där basstationerna inte ger explicita sändningstillstånd till enheterna. Denanalytiska modell som föreslås i avhandlingen utgör ett verktyg för att utvärdera sådana samexistensscenarier.Med verktygen kan vi analysera olika systems prestanda när det gäller framgångssannolikhet, fördröjning och batteriershållbarhetstid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2020. p. 67
Keywords
Mobile Edge Computing, MEC, Grant-free Radio Access, Internet of Things, Convex Optimization, Stochastic Geometry
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-268054 (URN)978-91-7873-440-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2020-03-06, Sal B, Electrum 229, Sal B, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
SOOGreen
Note

QC 20200228

Available from: 2020-02-17 Created: 2020-02-17 Last updated: 2020-03-02Bibliographically approved

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