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Integrated Bridge Maintenance: Evaluation of a pilot project and future perspectives
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Design and Bridges.
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The trend in many countries is to outsource maintenance with competitive tendering. The design of the tender is then a crucial issue. A new type of tendering contract, called "Integrated Bridge Maintenance", was introduced in one experimental area in Sweden. In this case the preventive bridge maintenance is separated from the standard road maintenance contract. The ideas behind these changes are that the new approach can increase efficiency through a combination of in­creased specialization, economies of scale and through giving the private contractor a greater degree of freedom concerning exactly what to do and exactly when to do it. A pilot project has been running since 2004 for all bridges in Uppsala County with about 400 bridges and since 2007 for all bridges in Örebro County with about 700 bridges.

 

The experiences and lessons from this pilot project are presented in this thesis together with guidelines on how to procure Integrated Bridge Maintenance in the future. An important feature of the contract was that it contained a combination of specific measures that the contractor should carry out and properties of the bridges that the contractor was responsible to maintain. This created a balance between predictability and flexibility for the contractor. The contractor could make long term planning for the work. The client was satisfied because of increased com­petence and a low price. The latter can partly be explained by the possibility for the specialised bridge crew to receive additional work from other clients. As information about old bridges always is incomplete a partnering structure needs to be built into the contract. Experi­ence has also shown that a conscious policy to maintain long run competition is important. The general conclusion is that the project was seen as successful and as creating more "value for money".

 

To manage a bridge stock optimally from a life cycle perspective is a very complex task, since the condi­tions for the individual bridge can vary greatly from place to place which the answers from the research questions indicate. Besides following-up and evaluating the Integrated Bridge Maintenance projects a number of research questions have been studied.

 

Is Integrated Bridge Maintenance a successful method to increase the effectiveness and to increase the standard in bridge maintenance alternatively increasing the service life for the bridge stock at an optimal cost, i.e., will IBM lead to lower LCC? It is difficult to answer this question with exact numbers after so short time, but so far the opinion is that the effectiveness has increased. How can a bridge stock develop over a long time e.g. 15 years? Based on historical data one can calculate, for instance, new construction rate, demolition rate and average age for the bridge stock. This information could together with different future scenarios be a basis for different bridge management strategies for the actual bridge stock. What is the real service life for a bridge? Survival analysis for the different types of bridges in the actual bridge stock will give a good estimate of the different expected service life. Why and at which age are bridges de­molished? Two main reasons were found in this study: deterioration process of the bridge had gone too far and/or load bearing capacity was too low, and road were rerouted. What is the real service life for a bridge edge beam, one of the most often repaired element of Swedish bridges? Survival analysis of edge beams located on different types of roads will give a good estimate of the different expected service life.

 

How should a long-term contract for bridge maintenance and specially Integrated Bridge Maintenance be procured? The bridge manager should have a good understanding of the answers on the research ques­tions above when the tender documents are to be prepared for the actual bridge stock. Thereafter the area that the contract should cover could be chosen, a good balance between properties and measures, defining the working cycle for properties, a flexible partnering structure in the contract and a suitable length of the contract (x years) inclusive an option (+ y years) and finally good incentives in the contract.

 

To sum up, the main purpose with the doctoral project has been reached. A model for procurement of bridge maintenance has been developed; see the projects in Uppsala and Örebro. The contractor has deve­loped more effective methods for bridge maintenance. The doctoral project has been a step closer to the end goal of reducing the society’s costs for bridge maintenance in the future. The bridges should be func­tional to the lowest possible cost during its expected service life (LCC). The doctoral project has also con­tributed with new knowledge in the area of bridge maintenance, the actual development of a bridge stock over time, real service life for road bridges in Sweden and survival analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , xi, 149 p.
Series
Trita-BKN. Bulletin, ISSN 1103-4270 ; 95
Keyword [en]
bridge management, bridge maintenance, real service life, partnering
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9572OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9572DiVA: diva2:126457
Public defence
2008-12-09, Sal F3, Lindstedtsv 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-17 Last updated: 2010-08-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Procurement of bridge management based on functional requirements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Procurement of bridge management based on functional requirements
2004 (English)In: Second International Conference on Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, IABMAS, 2004, 185-186 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9637 (URN)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2010-08-26Bibliographically approved
2. Bridge demolition and construction rates: inspection data-based indicators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridge demolition and construction rates: inspection data-based indicators
2008 (English)In: Bridge Structures, ISSN 1573-2487, Vol. 4, no 1, 33-47 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bridge planning and management require precise and continuous information on how the age and condition of various types of bridges evolve. A main objective for a bridge manager is to keep the bridge stock in a good and safe condition. A research question is how many new bridges need to be constructed and old bridges demolished per year to maintain the average age and condition of the bridge stock. In the current study, indicators to give guidance on the replacement ratio were developed from real data. This paper calculates the construction and demolition rates required to maintain the average age for a population of 1800 bridges in a Swedish region. Annual investment and demolition rates, the major reasons to demolish bridges, the resulting actual service life, costs associated with construction, maintenance and repair and the Swedish Road Administration's condition quantifier, lack of capital value (LCV), are addressed.

Keyword
bridge stock; real lifespan; demolition; maintenance; costs; lack of capital value
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9639 (URN)10.1080/15732480802031499 (DOI)2-s2.0-84861361460 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2010-08-26Bibliographically approved
3. The real service life and repair methods of steel pipe culverts in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The real service life and repair methods of steel pipe culverts in Sweden
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the 1st European Conference on Buried Flexible Steel Structures, 2007, 185-193 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Keyword
steel culvert; real life span; repair methods
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9640 (URN)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2010-08-26Bibliographically approved
4. Degradation, repair methods and real service life of Soil Steel Composite bridges in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Degradation, repair methods and real service life of Soil Steel Composite bridges in Sweden
2008 (English)In: IABMAS' 08, 2008, 429- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9641 (URN)2-s2.0-79952289265 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2010-08-26Bibliographically approved
5. The real service life of road bridges
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The real service life of road bridges
2007 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Bridge Engineering, ISSN 1478-4629, E-ISSN 1751-7680, Vol. 160, no 4, 173-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bridges form an important part of a nation's road system and require large capital investment. The number of bridges in a nation's bridge stock is seldom constant from one year to another as new bridges are built and old structures are demolished. This paper, based on a case study of 1170 bridges demolished in Sweden during a 15-year period (1990-2005), describes the real life span for various types of road bridges. The major reasons for demolition of bridges are addressed and survival analysis for different types of road bridges is introduced.

Keyword
Bridges; Demolition; Service life
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9642 (URN)10.1680/bren.2007.160.4.173 (DOI)2-s2.0-37249052456 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. The real service life and repair costs for bridge edge beams
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The real service life and repair costs for bridge edge beams
2007 (English)In: Restoration of buildings and monuments, ISSN 1864-7251, Vol. 13, no 4, 215-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bridges rarely just break down. It is the different structural members of the bridge that slowly degrade the whole structure. One of the most damaged structural members of a bridge is the edge beam. This paper is based on a survey of 260 repaired or replaced edge beams located in a region in Sweden during a 15-year period, 1990-2005. It describes the real life span for edge beams and associated costs to repair them. Survival analysis of replaced edge beams is presented.

Keyword
edge beams; real life span; repair costs
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9643 (URN)
Note
QC 20100826Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2010-08-26Bibliographically approved
7. Experiences from Procurement of Integrated Bridge Maintenance in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences from Procurement of Integrated Bridge Maintenance in Sweden
2009 (English)In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, Vol. 9, no 2, 143-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The trend in many countries is to outsource maintenance with competitive tendering. The design of the tender is then a crucial issue. A new type of tendering contract, called "Integrated Bridge Maintenance", was introduced in one experimental area in Sweden. In this case bridge maintenance is separated out from the standard road maintenance contract. A pilot project has been running since 2004 for all bridges in Uppsala County with about 400 bridges. The experiences and lessons from this pilot project are presented here, and analysed from a transaction cost perspective. An important feature of the contract was that it contained a combination of measures that should be carried out and properties of the bridges that the contractor was responsible to maintain. This created a balance between predictability and flexibility for the contractor. The client was satisfied because of increased competence and a low price. The latter can partly be explained by the possibility for the specialised bridge crew to get additional work from other sectors. One problem was that some properties were difficult to measure, which led to some controversies. As information about old bridges always are incomplete a partnering structure need to be built into the contract. Experience has also shown that a conscious policy to maintain long run competition is important. The general conclusion is that the project was seen as successful and as creating more "value for money".

Keyword
bridges; maintenance; partnering; performance contracts
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9644 (URN)000272246100004 ()2-s2.0-67649959712 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100826. Uppdaterad från accepted till published (20100826).Available from: 2008-11-21 Created: 2008-11-21 Last updated: 2010-08-26Bibliographically approved

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