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Approaches to road network vulnerability analysis
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4106-3126
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Incidents in the road transport system can have large negative consequences for the society and the business community. The basic aim of vulnerability analysis is to identify scenarios that i) would lead to severe consequences, and ii) have some likelihood of being realized in the future. The Thesis proposes two main approaches to vulnerability analysis. The first significant component of the analysis is to identify important links in the road network, i.e., links where a disruption would lead to severe consequences. The second component is to identify exposed users, i.e., users for which the consequences of a disruption would be particularly severe.

Paper I introduces the concepts of importance and exposure and how they can be operationalized in terms of increased travel time when road links are closed. The measures are applied to the road network of northern Sweden. Among other things, we find that the most important road links from a socio-economic efficiency perspective are sections of the main roads in the region going through the main population centres. The most exposed users, on the other hand, live in the sparsely populated municipalities in the northwest along the Norwegian border.

Paper II studies the geographic patterns of exposure and importance in Sweden and identifies properties of the geography, road network and travel patterns that to a large extent explain the observed spatial differences. We find that the municipalities around Stockholm have the most important road networks, and that people in the southern parts of Sweden are considerably less exposed than in the northern parts. We also find that the sparsity of the road network, the travel times of the users and the traffic load on the links provide good explanatory variables for the regional variations in exposure and importance.

Paper III proposes a link importance measure that incorporates both efficiency considerations, i.e. the total increase in travel time, and equity considerations, i.e. the unevenness of the distribution among users. We show analytically that there is a strong inverse relationship between the two components. In a case study of the Swedish road network we find that when only efficiency is considered, links in many of the main roads are among the most important. With more weight put on equity, importance is gradually shifted to smaller local roads with poor or no alternative routes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , ix, 19 p.
Series
Trita-TEC-LIC, ISSN 1653-445X ; 07-002
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4518ISBN: 978-91-85539-24-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4518DiVA: diva2:12647
Presentation
2007-11-06, V-sem, KTH, Teknikringen 78A, 1tr, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101109Available from: 2007-11-06 Created: 2007-11-06 Last updated: 2010-11-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Importance and exposure in road network vulnerability analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Importance and exposure in road network vulnerability analysis
2006 (English)In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 40, no 7, 537-560 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reliability and vulnerability of critical infrastructures have attracted a lot of attention recently. In order to assess these issues quantitatively, operational measures are needed. Such measures can also be used as guidance to road administrations in their prioritisation of maintenance and repair of roads, as well as for avoiding causing unnecessary disturbances in the planning of roadwork. The concepts of link importance and site exposure are introduced. In this paper, several link importance indices and site exposure indices are derived, based on the increase in generalised travel cost when links are closed. These measures are divided into two groups: one reflecting an "equal opportunities perspective", and the other a "social efficiency perspective". The measures are calculated for the road network of northern Sweden. Results are collected in a GIs for visualisation, and are presented per link and municipality. In view of the recent great interest in complex networks, some topological measures of the road network are also presented.

Keyword
Contingency planning, Road network topology, Travel reliability, Vulnerability index
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7575 (URN)10.1016/j.tra.2005.11.003 (DOI)000237913200001 ()2-s2.0-33645902544 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100917

Available from: 2007-11-06 Created: 2007-11-06 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved
2. Spatial patterns of road network vulnerability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial patterns of road network vulnerability
2007 (English)In: 9th Nectar Conference, Porto, Portugal, May 9–12, 2007, 2007Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7576 (URN)
Note
QC 20100617Available from: 2007-11-06 Created: 2007-11-06 Last updated: 2010-11-09Bibliographically approved
3. Considering the user inequity of road network vulnerability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Considering the user inequity of road network vulnerability
2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An important purpose of the road transport system is to allow people to commute in efficientand reliable ways. For various undesired reasons, however, link capacities are sometimes reduced or linksare closed completely. To assess and reduce the risk of such events, a key issue is to identify road linksthat are particularly important, i.e. roads where disruptions would have particularly severe consequences.This paper presents a method for incorporating user equity considerations into a road link importancemeasure. As a complement to measuring the total increase in vehicle travel time, we also measure thedisparity in the distribution among individual users. These two components are combined to form anequity-weighted importance measure. We study the properties of this measure both analytically and in afull-scale case study of the Swedish road network. A main result is that increasing the weight put on the equity aspect transfers importance from the main roads to smaller local roads. The use of the measure intransport policy and planning is discussed.

Keyword
Transport; Networks, Efficiency, Equity, Vulnerability, Reliability
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7577 (URN)
Note

QC 20101109

Available from: 2007-11-06 Created: 2007-11-06 Last updated: 2016-08-16Bibliographically approved

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Jenelius, Erik

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