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Equal opportunity for biomass in greenhouse gas accounting of CO2 capture and storage: a step towards more cost-effective climate change mitigation regimes
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3315-4201
Division of Energy Engineering, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Luleå University of Technology.
Finnish Forest Research Institute.
2006 (English)In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 5-6, 1083-1096 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon dioxide capture and permanent storage (CCS) is one of the most frequently discussed technologies with the potential to mitigate climate change. The natural target for CCS has been the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil energy sources. However, CCS has also been suggested in combination with biomass during recent years. Given that the impact on the earth's radiative balance is the same whether CO2 emissions of a fossil or a biomass origin are captured and stored away from the atmosphere, we argue that an equal reward should be given for the CCS, independent of the origin of the CO2. The guidelines that provide assistance for the national greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting under the Kyoto Protocol have not considered CCS from biomass (biotic CCS) and it appears that it is not possible to receive emission credits for biotic CCS under the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, i.e., 2008-2012. We argue that it would be unwise to exclude this GHG mitigation alternative from the competition with other GHG mitigation options. We also propose a feasible approach as to how emission credits for biotic CCS could be included within a future accounting framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 11, no 5-6, 1083-1096 p.
Keyword [en]
Biomass, Carbon accounting, Carbon capture and storage, CCS, GHG accounting
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7585DOI: 10.1007/s11027-006-9034-9Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33750368926OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7585DiVA: diva2:12656
Note
QC 20101015. Uppdaterad från accepted till published (20101015).Available from: 2005-10-18 Created: 2005-10-18 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. All CO2 molecules are equal, but some CO2 molecules are more equal than others
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All CO2 molecules are equal, but some CO2 molecules are more equal than others
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with some challenges related to the mitigation of climate change and the overall aim is to present and assess different possibilities for the mitigation of climate change by:

• Suggesting some measures with a potential to abate net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions,

• Discussing ideas for how decision-makers could tackle some of the encountered obstacles linked to these measures, and

• Pointing at some problems with the current Kyoto framework and suggesting modifications of it.

The quantification of the net CO2 effect from a specific project, frequently referred to as emissions accounting, is an important tool to evaluate projects and strategies for mitigating climate change. This thesis discusses different emissions accounting methods. It is concluded that no single method ought to be used for generalisation purposes, as many factors may affect the real outcome for different projects. The estimated outcome is extremely dependent on the method chosen and, thus, the suggested approach is to apply a broader perspective than the use of a particular method for strategic decisions. The risk of losing the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol when over-simplified emissions accounting methods are applied for the quantification of emission credits that can be obtained by a country with binding emissions targets for projects executed in a country without binding emission targets is also discussed.

Driving forces and obstacles with regard to energy-related co-operations between industries and district heating companies have been studied since they may potentially reduce net GHG emissions. The main conclusion is that favourable techno-economic circumstances are not sufficient for the implementation of a co-operation; other factors like people with the true ambition to co-operate are also necessary.

How oxy-fuel combustion for CO2 capture and storage (CCS) purposes may be much more efficiently utilised together with some industrial processes than with power production processes is also discussed. As cost efficiency is relevant for the Kyoto framework, this thesis suggests that CCS performed on CO2 from biomass should be allowed to play on a level playing field with CCS from fossil sources, as the outcome for the atmosphere is independent of the origin of the CO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 71 p.
Series
Trita-KET, ISSN 1104-3466 ; 221
Keyword
climate change mitigation, abatement of GHG-emissions, co-operation, district heating, waste-heat utilisation
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-452 (URN)91-7178-163-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-10-21, Sal D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101015Available from: 2005-10-18 Created: 2005-10-18 Last updated: 2010-10-15Bibliographically approved

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