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All CO2 molecules are equal, but some CO2 molecules are more equal than others
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Energy Processes.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3315-4201
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with some challenges related to the mitigation of climate change and the overall aim is to present and assess different possibilities for the mitigation of climate change by:

• Suggesting some measures with a potential to abate net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions,

• Discussing ideas for how decision-makers could tackle some of the encountered obstacles linked to these measures, and

• Pointing at some problems with the current Kyoto framework and suggesting modifications of it.

The quantification of the net CO2 effect from a specific project, frequently referred to as emissions accounting, is an important tool to evaluate projects and strategies for mitigating climate change. This thesis discusses different emissions accounting methods. It is concluded that no single method ought to be used for generalisation purposes, as many factors may affect the real outcome for different projects. The estimated outcome is extremely dependent on the method chosen and, thus, the suggested approach is to apply a broader perspective than the use of a particular method for strategic decisions. The risk of losing the integrity of the Kyoto Protocol when over-simplified emissions accounting methods are applied for the quantification of emission credits that can be obtained by a country with binding emissions targets for projects executed in a country without binding emission targets is also discussed.

Driving forces and obstacles with regard to energy-related co-operations between industries and district heating companies have been studied since they may potentially reduce net GHG emissions. The main conclusion is that favourable techno-economic circumstances are not sufficient for the implementation of a co-operation; other factors like people with the true ambition to co-operate are also necessary.

How oxy-fuel combustion for CO2 capture and storage (CCS) purposes may be much more efficiently utilised together with some industrial processes than with power production processes is also discussed. As cost efficiency is relevant for the Kyoto framework, this thesis suggests that CCS performed on CO2 from biomass should be allowed to play on a level playing field with CCS from fossil sources, as the outcome for the atmosphere is independent of the origin of the CO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , 71 p.
Series
Trita-KET, ISSN 1104-3466 ; 221
Keyword [en]
climate change mitigation, abatement of GHG-emissions, co-operation, district heating, waste-heat utilisation
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-452ISBN: 91-7178-163-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-452DiVA: diva2:12657
Public defence
2005-10-21, Sal D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101015Available from: 2005-10-18 Created: 2005-10-18 Last updated: 2010-10-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Driving forces and obstacles with regard to co-operation between municipal energy companies and process industries in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Driving forces and obstacles with regard to co-operation between municipal energy companies and process industries in Sweden
2006 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 34, no 13, 1508-1519 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

District heating networks can technically enable energy-related co-operations between energy-intensive industries and municipal energy companies. The most common form of co-operation is to utilise industrial waste heat as the primary energy source in district heating networks. However, another type of co-operation is to jointly own a plant that produces both process steam for the industry and hot water for district heating. In this article, eight Swedish energy co-operations are studied and the main focus is on the process leading to co-operations of this kind. Different aspects of factors that facilitate or obstruct the start up and continuous daily operation of a co-operation are discussed. The main conclusion is that while the primary reasons for the foundation of such co-operations are favourable techno-economic factors, this is not enough for a co-operation to emerge. This study highlights the importance of people with a real ambition to co-operate in both parties in the co-operations.

Keyword
co-operation; district heating; waste heat utilisation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7580 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2004.11.001 (DOI)000237215400007 ()2-s2.0-33645927939 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100617Available from: 2005-10-18 Created: 2005-10-18 Last updated: 2010-10-15Bibliographically approved
2. Emissions accounting for use and supply of electricity in the Nordic market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emissions accounting for use and supply of electricity in the Nordic market
2004 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 32, no 13, 1555-1564 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the deregulated Nordic electricity market, countries have varying kinds of power generation. In Norway, hydropower generation dominates. while the Swedish electricity production largely consists of equal shares of hydro and nuclear power production. There is a larger share of fossil fuel power generation in Finland and, especially, in Denmark. Cross-border trade between the countries is considerable. Increased use of electricity anywhere in the region may thus entail augmented emissions of greenhouse gases. The amount of increased emissions due to additional electricity usage will depend on the type of generation supplying the additional electricity. Similarly, a decrease in electricity usage may involve reduced greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper. we discuss some different ways to account for changes in greenhouse gas emissions because of a changed use or supply of electricity. A comprehensive accounting scheme should provide an accurate link between various types of energy measures and their related emissions in order to facilitate cost-effective carbon dioxide mitigation procedures.

Keyword
electricity accounting, Nordic countries, cross-border trade
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7581 (URN)10.1016/S0301-4215(03)00129-0 (DOI)000221168100008 ()2-s2.0-1942501623 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101015 QC 20110923Available from: 2005-10-18 Created: 2005-10-18 Last updated: 2011-09-23Bibliographically approved
3. Models for assessing net CO2 emissions applied on district heating technologies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Models for assessing net CO2 emissions applied on district heating technologies
2003 (English)In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 27, no 6, 601-613 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Methodologies to assess the effects of energy projects on global carbon dioxide emissions will be an important feature of a future international carbon dioxide trading system. In this paper, we present and discuss four different models for assessing the net carbon dioxide emissions resulting from a certain energy project. These models are applied to different district heating technologies. To judge the mitigation performance of a project, the amount of carbon dioxide released in kilograms is expressed per megawatt-hour of useful district heating produced. All the models consider the marginal change caused by the project on the electric power system. The different model perspectives are discussed, and it is shown that the choice of model is very critical for assessing the net carbon dioxide emissions from an energy project.

Keyword
CO2, crediting, model, district heating, marginal power
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7582 (URN)10.1002/er.898 (DOI)000182554300005 ()
Note
QC 20101015Available from: 2005-10-18 Created: 2005-10-18 Last updated: 2010-10-15Bibliographically approved
4. CDM from Jevons’ perspective: Do emission reductions go together with increasing supply of energy, efficiency improvement and rapid development?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CDM from Jevons’ perspective: Do emission reductions go together with increasing supply of energy, efficiency improvement and rapid development?
2005 (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Keyword
CDM, leakage, climate change
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7583 (URN)
Note
QS 2010 QS 20120319Available from: 2005-10-18 Created: 2005-10-18 Last updated: 2012-03-19Bibliographically approved
5. Oxygen efficiency with regard to carbon capture
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxygen efficiency with regard to carbon capture
2006 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, Vol. 31, no 15, 3220-3226 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon capture is often discussed in the literature with the sole focus on power processes, despite the fact that carbon dioxide emissions from other sources are just as relevant for the impact on the atmosphere. Furthermore, some carbon capture methods are relatively inefficient when applied to power production processes. Carbon capture should preferably be performed where the cost is as low as possible, i.e. not necessarily from power production processes. As an example, carbon capture using combustion with pure oxygen is far more energy efficient if it is used together with lime kilns or cement kilns than together with power production processes. A new concept termed "oxygen efficiency" is introduced in this paper. It describes the amount of carbon dioxide that can potentially be captured per unit of oxygen. As such, the oxygen efficiency quantifies the value of a certain unit of oxygen for carbon capture reasons. The base concept is that the energy penalty for the production of one part of oxygen is the same no matter where it is produced; hence, if this unit of oxygen can be used to capture more carbon dioxide, it is more efficient. Typically, the oxygen efficiency would be five times greater for carbon capture when utilising pure oxygen together with cement kilns rather than together with methane-fired power plants. Furthermore, the concept of oxygen efficiency illustrates the importance of considering how carbon capture methods can be utilised in the most efficient way, in addition to evaluating which carbon capture method is the most suitable for a particular technology.

Keyword
oxygen combustion, carbon capture, cement kiln, lime kiln
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10974 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2006.03.002 (DOI)000241246600013 ()2-s2.0-33748298913 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100727Available from: 2009-09-01 Created: 2009-09-01 Last updated: 2011-09-29Bibliographically approved
6. Equal opportunity for biomass in greenhouse gas accounting of CO2 capture and storage: a step towards more cost-effective climate change mitigation regimes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Equal opportunity for biomass in greenhouse gas accounting of CO2 capture and storage: a step towards more cost-effective climate change mitigation regimes
2006 (English)In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 11, no 5-6, 1083-1096 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carbon dioxide capture and permanent storage (CCS) is one of the most frequently discussed technologies with the potential to mitigate climate change. The natural target for CCS has been the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil energy sources. However, CCS has also been suggested in combination with biomass during recent years. Given that the impact on the earth's radiative balance is the same whether CO2 emissions of a fossil or a biomass origin are captured and stored away from the atmosphere, we argue that an equal reward should be given for the CCS, independent of the origin of the CO2. The guidelines that provide assistance for the national greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting under the Kyoto Protocol have not considered CCS from biomass (biotic CCS) and it appears that it is not possible to receive emission credits for biotic CCS under the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, i.e., 2008-2012. We argue that it would be unwise to exclude this GHG mitigation alternative from the competition with other GHG mitigation options. We also propose a feasible approach as to how emission credits for biotic CCS could be included within a future accounting framework.

Keyword
Biomass, Carbon accounting, Carbon capture and storage, CCS, GHG accounting
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7585 (URN)10.1007/s11027-006-9034-9 (DOI)2-s2.0-33750368926 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101015. Uppdaterad från accepted till published (20101015).Available from: 2005-10-18 Created: 2005-10-18 Last updated: 2010-10-15Bibliographically approved

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