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Transpiration deficits increase host susceptibility to bark beetle attack: Experimental observations and practical outcomes for Ips typographus hazard assessment
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2018 (English)In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 263, p. 69-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The projected increase in the frequency and severity with which bark beetle disturbances occur is forecasted to be partially driven by increases in drought episodes. Drought is widely considered to predispose host conifer trees to bark beetle attack; however, experimental data supporting this hypothesis are scarce. This study revisits the Rosalia Roof Project, the first throughfall manipulation experiment to investigate how attack by the Eurasian spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees is affected by drought stress. Using the in situ “attack box” method, this study explores whether increased host acceptance by I. typographus and/or reduced host defense against attack coincide with increased tree transpiration deficits (i.e. the reduction from a potential transpiration caused by soil water limitation). To estimate transpiration deficits of the respective control and drought stress-induced (full-cover) trees, sap flow measurements were combined with simulations from a simple forest water balance routine. The model, which was calibrated against in situ hydrological measurements, has been developed for a hazard rating tool (PHENIPS-TDEF) which simulates both potential I. typographus phenology and tree drought stress in Norway spruce stands. While host acceptance appeared unaffected by tree transpiration deficits, acute and chronic transpiration deficits did lead to reduced host defense. Full cover trees for instance, which experienced an estimated 93 mm transpiration deficit in the previous May-Sep, could only defend against <10% of the total individual attack attempts between spring and midsummer compared to the control trees which experienced a corresponding deficit of 9 mm and defended >70% of attacks. However, similar defended attack percentages on the full-cover and control trees during late summer demonstrate the difficulty in deriving simple stress proxy-infestation risk relationships. The experiment therefore highlights the utility and limitations of transpiration deficits within I. typographus disturbance models and hazard assessment tools, such as PHENIPS-TDEF. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier B.V. , 2018. Vol. 263, p. 69-89
Keywords [en]
Bark beetles, Drought stress, Ecosystem modelling, Infestation hazard assessment, Ips typographus, Picea abies, beetle, coniferous tree, dry season, ecosystem modeling, host-parasite interaction, in situ measurement, parasite infestation, plant defense, transpiration, Coniferophyta, Picea, Scolytinae
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-236547DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.08.004ISI: 000449236500007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85051767792OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-236547DiVA, id: diva2:1266157
Note

 Funding details: FWF, Austrian Science Fund; Funding details: TRP194-B16, FWF, Austrian Science Fund; Funding text: The authors are grateful to T. Weinkopf, P. Zabransky, M. Mayer, J. Gasch, the fire brigade of Hochwolkersdorf and all volunteers for their valuable assistance in setting up and/or maintaining the field experiments. The authors furthermore acknowledge the financial support of the Austrian Science Fund ( FWF; TRP194-B16 ). Finally, the authors thank the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive evaluations of the originally submitted manuscript. Appendix A1. QC 20181127

Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-11-27Bibliographically approved

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