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Energy Efficiency in the French Islands: Analysis of electrical consumption for heating and domestic appliances and method for cooling demand reduction in Reunion Island’s residential sector
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

An energy transition is progressively developing at European and global level to respond to a major challenge: to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to ensure energy security, guaranteeing reasonable energy prices to contribute to the economic stability. Energy efficiency is one of the pillars of this transition. [1] The study presented focuses on three main strategies developed by EDF to reduce electricity consumption in the residential sector. Particularly, it addresses insular areas where weak energy systems and environmental constraints enhance the necessity of a rapid action to limit the energy demand. Results are based on the analysis carried out at EDF R&D Lab Les Renardi`eres, in France. In the introduction the main features of islands’ power system are presented, along with its challenges and possibilities of progress. Importance is given to demand-side management as well as to renewable energy development since both are relevant to attain a sustainable energy system. In the following sections, the focus moves on to the French islands only where EDF operates as main electrical supplier. The Reunion Island’s main economic and social characteristics are exposed and followed by the description of island’s energy system. Among all the sectors influencing Reunion’s electrical consumption, the thesis seeks to contribute to the improvement of the residential one. The study develops on three main topics corresponding to some of the most energy intensive domestic practices (refrigeration, air-conditioning and heating) on which EDF will elaborate energy efficiency projects. Those are described in the last three sections and include the following: evaluation of refrigerators’ load curve to identify anomalous behaviour in their operation, quantification of the heating demand in Reunion Island, assessment of the feasibility of coupling ceiling fans and air-conditioners to decrease electricity consumption for indoor cooling. While the latter is mainly based on literature review, the first two topics rely on the use of specific softwares, R Studio and Diag Serie respectively. R Studio is employed to build a tool for automatic appliance’s evaluation and a web app for load curve analysis, whereas Diag Serie, a simulation tool developed by EDF R&D, is employed to calculate household’s energy consumption by use and source. Results on a first set of data shown that refrigerator’s load curve is considerably sensitive to user interactions with the device and that during meal-time a peak in power consumption is observed. Furthermore, it has been found that among the main parameters (refrigeration cycle’s duration, idle period duration and consumption) cycle’s time length is the one which varies most. However, as the analysis has been carried out on test data, it is likely that different results will be found when data from Reunion will be available. On the other hand, the consistency of developed tools has been confirmed. From the second part of the study it can be inferred that heating demand becomes relevant at altitudes greater than 600 metres. This consideration is important for the projections of future electricity demand in the island which EDF is developing and for pursuing energy efficiency programs focusing on less energy intensive solutions to provide heat in households. The main outcomes of the third and last section establish that ceiling fans can efficiently reduce electricity consumption for cooling during the hottest months in Reunion. As energy savings might be in the order of 30%, the consequent annual money gain make the purchase of those devices worthwhile. Although the study is focused on the Reunion Island, it is reasonable to assume that similar principles can be applied to other islands experiencing the same energy transition and having a similar climate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 61
Series
TRITA-ITM-EX ; 2018:726
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239869OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-239869DiVA, id: diva2:1267620
External cooperation
Aalto
Subject / course
Industrial Economics and Management
Educational program
Master of Science - Industrial Engineering and Management
Presentation
2018-09-21, 00:00 (English)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved

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