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Adding lignin derivatives to decrease the effect of mechano-sorptive creep in linerboard
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2900-4713
2008 (English)In: Appita journal, ISSN 1038-6807, Vol. 61, no 6, 468-471 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When load is applied to any type of paper while varying the relative humidity, the paper will creep more than if the same load is applied at constant humidity. This behaviour is called mechano-sorptive creep or accelerated creep, and the reasons for its occurrence in paper are still not fully understood. However, wet strength and the addition of apolar (hydrophobic) compounds to sheets have previously been suggested as factors improving the mechano-sorptive creep performance.

This work evaluates a method for improving wet strength and tests the addition of a hydrophobic compound, with particular reference to mechano-sorptive creep stiffness. Wet strength was improved by subjecting kraft liner pulp to low-molecular-weight lignin, obtained by cross-flow filtration, and to the radical initiator manganese(III). The hydrophobic compound added was a suberin-like lignin derivative. Adding the suberin-like lignin derivative significantly increased the mechano-sorptive creep stiffness, even though the stiffness at 90% rh decreased in the tested samples. This was probably because of the decrease in hygroexpansion caused by this hydrophobic additive.

Even though it is possible significantly to increase the wet strength of kraft liner pulp by adding manganese(III) and cross-flow-filtered lignin, doing so has no significant effect on mechano-sorptive creep stiffness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 61, no 6, 468-471 p.
Keyword [en]
lignin derivatives; mechano-sorptive creep; wet strength; kraft liner; hygroexpansion; oxidative coupling; CROSS-LINKING; BLACK LIQUOR; PAPER
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9710ISI: 000261303200021Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-56649114226OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9710DiVA: diva2:127107
Note
Uppdaterad från manuskript till artikel: 20101103. QC 20100629Available from: 2008-12-01 Created: 2008-12-01 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Strategies for improving kraftliner pulp properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategies for improving kraftliner pulp properties
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

A large part of the world paper manufacturing consists of production of corrugated board components, kraftliner and fluting, that are used in many different types of corrugated boxes. Because these boxes are stored and transported, they are often subjected to changes in relative humidity. These changes together with mechanical loads will increase the deformation of the boxes compared to the case where the same loads are applied in a static environment. This enlarged creep due to the changes in relative humidity is called mechano-sorptive or accelerated creep. Mechano-sorptive creep forces producers to use high safety factors when designing boxes, and therefore, this is one of the key properties of kraftliner boards.

 

Different strategies to decrease mechano-sorptive creep, and to simultaneously gain more knowledge about the causes for this phenomenon in paper, are the aim of this work. Derivatised and underivatised black liquor lignins, a by-product produced in pulp mills in large quantities, have been used together with biomimetic methods, to modify the properties of kraftliner pulp. Furthermore, the properties of kraftliner pulp have been compared to other pulps in order to evaluate the influence of fibre morphological factors, such as fibre width and shape factor, on the mechano-sorptive creep. In addition the influence of the chemical composition of the kraftliner pulp has been evaluated both by means of treating a kraftliner pulp with chlorite and xylanase and by producing pulps with different chemical composition.

 

By using lignin and biomimetic methods, to create radical coupling reactions, it has been shown that it is possible to increase the wet strength of kraftliner pulp sheets. This method of treating the pulp showed, however, no significant effects on the mechano-sorptive creep. The addition of an apolar suberin-like lignin derivative, which has been shown to be possible to produce from natural resources, did show a positive effect on mechano-sorptive creep properties, but at the expense of stiffness properties in constant climate. Different pulps were compared with a kraftliner pulp and it was observed that the ratio between tensile stiffness and hygroexpansion can be used to estimate the mechano-sorptive creep properties. The hardwood kraft pulps investigated had lower hygroexpansion, probably due to more slender and straighter fibres, and higher tensile stiffness, probably due to lower lignin content. As the lignin content was varied by different methods in kraft pulps, it was observed that increased lignin content gives an increased hygroexpansion and decreased tensile stiffness as well as an increased mechano-sorptive creep. There were also indications of increased mechano-sorptive creep due to higher xylan content.

 

 

Abstract [sv]

En stor del av världens papperstillverkning utgörs av produktion av wellpappkomponenter, kraftliner och fluting, som används i en uppsjö av olika wellpapplådor. När dessa lådor lagras och transporteras utsätts de ofta för förändringar i relativa luftfuktigheten. Dessa förändringar tillsammans med mekanisk belastning ökar lådornas deformation jämfört med om samma belastning skulle ha applicerats vid ett statiskt klimat. Denna förhöjda krypning på grund av förändringarna i relativ luftfuktighet kallas mekanosorptiv- eller accelererad krypning. Mekanosorptiv krypning tvingar producenterna att ha höga säkerhetsmarginaler vid dimensioneringar av lådor och är därför en av nyckelegenskaperna för kraftliner.

 

Olika strategier för att minska denna effekt, och på samma gång erövra mer kunskap om orsakerna till detta fenomen, har varit syftet med arbetet. Derivatiserade och oderivatiserade svartlutslignin, en biprodukt möjlig att få ut i stora kvantiteter från massabruk, har används tillsammans med biomimetriska metoder, för att modifiera kraftlinermassas egenskaper. Dessutom har kraftlinermassans egenskaper jämförts med andra massors egenskaper för att utvärdera inverkan av fibermorfologiska faktorer, såsom fiberbredd och fibreform på det mekanosorptiva krypet. Också inverkan av den kemiska sammansättningen av kraftliner massan har undersökts både genom behandling med klorit och xylanas och genom att producera massor med olika kemiska sammansättningar.

 

Genom att använda lignin och biomimetriska metoder för att skapa radikal-kopplingsreaktioner har det visats på möjligheten att öka våtstyrkan i massa-ark. Det här sättet att behandla massa visade dessvärre inga signifikanta effekter på det mekanosorptiva krypet. Tillsatts av ett apolärt suberin-liknande ligninderivat, som visats möjligt att producera ur naturliga råmaterial, visade en positiv effekt på det mekanosorptiva krypegenskaperna även om det var på bekostnad av styvheten vid konstant klimat. Olika massor jämfördes med en kraftlinermassa och det observerades att relationen mellan dragstyvhet och hygroexpansion kan användas för att uppskatta de mekanosorptiva krypegenskaperna. Lövvedssulfatmassorna som undersöktes hade lägre hygroexpansion, antagligen beroende på smalare och rakare fibrer, och högre dragstyvhet, troligen beroende på en lägre ligninhalt. När ligninhalten varierades i sulfatmassor med olika metoder observerades att ökad ligninhalt ger en ökad hygroexpansion och minskad dragstyvhet liksom en ökad mekanosorptiv krypning. Dessutom fanns indikationer på en ökad mekanosorptiv krypning till följd av högre xylaninnehåll.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. 43 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2008:70
Keyword
lignin, xylan, kraftliner pulp, mechano-sorptive creep, hygroexpansion, stiffness, fibre shape, fibre width, lignin, xylan, kraftlinermassa, mekanosorptivt kryp, hygroexpansion, styvhet, fiberform, fiberbredd
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9718 (URN)978-91-7415-175-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-12-19, E2, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 14:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100629Available from: 2008-12-08 Created: 2008-12-01 Last updated: 2010-06-30Bibliographically approved
2. The Use of Lignin Derivatives to Improve Selected Paper Properties
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Use of Lignin Derivatives to Improve Selected Paper Properties
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [sv]

Ved består huvudsakligen av tre typer av polymerer, cellulosa, hemicellulosa och lignin. Lignin bildas i naturen genom enzymatiskt initierad oxidativ koppling av tre olika typer av fenylpropan-enheter. Dessa bygger genom olika kol-kol- och kol-syre-bindningar upp en amorf tredimensionell polymer. När kemisk massa tillverkas bryts lignin ner och löses ut i kokluten. Luten innehåller de förbrukade kokkemikalierna och bränns generellt i en sodapanna för att regenerera kemikalierna och producera ånga. Sodapannan är emellertid dyr. Därför har den blivit produktionsbegränsande på många massabruk. Att avlägsna en del av ligninet från avluten vore därför önskvärt och att finna ekonomiskt intressanta produkter baserade på lignin från svartlut är därför ett viktigt forskningsområde .

Ett lämpligt område för ligninprodukter vore som tillsatts i oblekt massa. Oblekt massa används till stor del för tillverkning av kraftliner, topp- och bottenskikten på wellpapp. När lådor av wellpapp lagras i containrar som färdas över haven, förändras den relativa luftfuktigheten. Detta gör att lådorna kollapsar lättare än om de skulle ha lagrats vid konstant luftfuktighet, även en hög sådan. Detta är på grund av det så kallade mekanosorptiva- eller accelererade krypfenomenet. Genom tillsatts av våtstyrkemedel till kraftliner eller behandla den med hydrofoba ämnen, finns indikatoner på att mekanosorptiva effekten skulle kunna minska.

För att försöka minska den effekten har ett lågmolekylärt kraftlignin, som utvunnits med hjälp av tvärsflödesfiltrering av svartlut och svavelsyrafällning, använts. Genom derivatisering av detta lignin med linolja erhölls ett hydrofobt ligninderivat som uppvisar strukturella likheter med biopolymeren suberin. När detta suberinlika ligninderivat tillsätts till massa verkar det mekanosorptiva krypet minska. När lågmolekylärt lignin används tillsammans med ligninradikalinitiatorerna lackas eller mangan(III) i kraftlinermassa erhålls dessutom en våtstyrka på ca 5% av torrstyrkan. Efter aminering av detta lignin gav en tillsatts till kraftlinermassan en våtstyrka på upp till 10% av torrstyrkan. Det finns indikationer på att det mekanosorptiva krypet samtidigt minskar när dessa behandlingar görs som ger upphov till ökad våtstyrka.

Abstract [en]

Wood consists mainly of three types of polymers; cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin. Lignin is formed in nature through enzymatic initiated oxidative coupling of three different kinds of phenyl propane units. These form by various carbon-carbon and carbon-oxygen bonds, an amorphous three-dimensional polymer. As chemical pulp is produced, lignin is degraded and dissolved into pulping liquors. These liquors contain the spent cooking chemicals and are generally burnt in a recovery boiler to regenerate cooking chemicals and produce steam. However, the recovery boiler is expensive. Hence, it has become the bottleneck for production in many pulp mills. Removal of some lignin from the spent cooking liquor would, for that reason, be desired and valuable products based on lignin from cooking liquors are searched for.

One suitable area for lignin products would be as additive in unbleached pulp. A major product from unbleached pulp is kraftliner, the top and bottom layers of corrugated board. When boxes of corrugated board are stored in containers travelling overseas the relative humidity is varying. This makes the boxes collapse more easily than if they were stored at constant humidity, even a high one. This is due to the so called mechano-sorptive or accelerated creep phenomenon. By addition of wet strength additive to kraftliner or treating it with hydrophobic compounds there are indications on that the mechano-sorptive effect would decrease.

Trying to decrease this effect, low molecular weight kraft lignin has been used. It was obtained by cross-flow filtration of black liquor and precipitation by sulphuric acid. By derivatisation of this lignin by linseed oil, a hydrophobic lignin derivative was obtained, similar in structure to units in the biopolymer suberin. As this suberin-like lignin-derivative was added to pulp the mechano-sorptive creep seemed to be lowered. Furthermore, when the low molecular weight lignin was used together with the lignin radical initiators laccase or manganese(III) in kraftliner pulp, a wet strength of about 5% of dry strength was obtained. An amination treatment of this lignin and addition to kraftliner pulp resulted in a wet strength of up to 10% of dry strength. There are indications of that the mechano-sorptive creep also decreases as these treatments, resulting in increased wet strength, are made.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. 28 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2007:56
Keyword
kraft lignin, black liquor, cross-flow filtration, lignin derivative, kraftliner, oxidative coupling, laccase, manganese, linseed oil, mechano-sorptive creep, kraftlignin, svartlut, tvärsflödesfiltrering, ligninderivat, kraftliner, oxidativ koppling, lackas, mangan, linolja, mekanosorptivt kryp
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4503 (URN)978-91-7178-745-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-10-05, Q31, Osquldas väg 6, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101103Available from: 2007-10-01 Created: 2007-10-01 Last updated: 2010-11-03Bibliographically approved

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