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Self-organization, cooperation and control distribution in wide and local area networks
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Communication Systems, CoS.
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

To support the future requirements on wireless systems in an affordable manner it is commonly believed that multiple radio access technologies have to be combined. These technologies can be deployed by a single operator or, even, be managed by different competing operators. In order to cope with the increased complexity of such a multifaced wireless environment it has been argued that a transfer of Radio Resource Management (RRM) functionalities towards the network edges (access ports and, ultimately, user terminals) may be beneficial. In addition to detecting varying system conditions in a faster manner this would also allow a more responsive service adaptation. In this thesis we evaluate a set of self-organizing regimes, all with the purpose of supporting the distribution of control at the edge node.

Particular emphasis is put on the design of a mechanism for dynamically establishing cooperation between different network entities whether these are access ports or user terminals.

Terminal cooperation by means of multihopping is considered in the context of service provision in cellular access systems. Previously the opportunity cost associated with sharing own bandwidth, and energy loss have been seen as a major obstacle for relaying other users’ traffic. To mitigate the effects of this selfish behavior the concept of resource delegation is introduced and evaluated in combination with a rewarding scheme designed for compensating the energy losses induced by forwarding. The results show that our proposed schemes not only are capable of fostering significant cooperation among users, but also to create a simultaneous improvement in user utility, data rates as well as in operator revenues.

Opening up networks of user-deployed Access Points (APs) for service provision is considered a means to radically lower the cost of future wireless services. However, since these networks are deployed in an uncoordinated manner, only discontinuous coverage will be provided. The question of how dense these networks need to be, to deliver acceptable user perception, is investigated in this thesis for a set of archetypical services. The results show that already at moderate AP densities the investigated services can be provided with sufficient quality. Epidemic exchange of popular content and inter-AP cooperation are also shown to further decrease the required infrastructure density and improve the APs’ utilization respectively.

As last contribution, “Word-of-Mouth”, a distributed reputation-based scheme, is investigated in the context of access selection in multi-operator environments. By exchanging information concerning the Quality of Service (QoS) associated with the different networks, terminal agents can collectively reveal the capabilities of individual networks. For a vertical handover scenario we show that our proposed scheme can reward access providers capable of ensuring some degrees of QoS. By introducing a model for collusion, between low performing APs and terminal agents, we show that our proposed scheme is also robust to the dissemination of false information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , x, 98 p.
Series
Trita-ICT-COS, ISSN 1653-6347 ; 0702
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4533OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4533DiVA: diva2:12726
Presentation
2007-11-23, Sal N2, KTH-Electrum 3, Isafjordsgatan 28, Kista, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101112Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2010-11-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Cost/Performance Trade-offs of "Two-Layers" Ad Hoc Multihop Cellular Access Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost/Performance Trade-offs of "Two-Layers" Ad Hoc Multihop Cellular Access Systems
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the fourth Scandinavian Workshop on Wireless Ad-hoc Networks, 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ad Hoc multihop cellular access is considered tobe a strong candidate for the next generation of public phonesystems. In this paper, we present a novel approach for solving the dimensioning problem of an ad hoc system capable of two hopstransmissions. In this respect, is presented and analyzed a method for comparing the expenditure levels, for deploying andrunning a cellular network, implemented through a multihoppingsystem or through a standard cellular solution selected as reference. In particular, we describe the conditions in which the proposed multihopping solution is feasible, and quantify the performance/cost trade-offs that are achievable. Numerical results show that the spectral efficiency of currently deployed single hop systems can almost be doubled, if the user terminals are capable of multihopping and the cell planning is performed so that a critical mass of user per cell can be guaranteed.

National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
SRA - ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7632 (URN)
Conference
the fourth Scandinavian Workshop on Wireless Ad-hoc Networks
Note

QC 20100715

Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2014-07-17Bibliographically approved
2. Resource Delegation and Rewards to Stimulate Forwarding in Multihip Cellular Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource Delegation and Rewards to Stimulate Forwarding in Multihip Cellular Networks
2005 (English)In: VTC 2005-Spring: 2005 IEEE 61st Vehicular Technology Conference, Proceedings, IEEE , 2005, no 4, 2152-2156 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multihop cellular networks that base the forwarding process on user terminals are challenged by a lack of forwarding incentive. In this paper 1, we present the novel concept of Resource Delegation which, applied in combination with pricing based rewards, guarantees both the separation of resources between originating transmitters and relays and the economic compensation of the energy investments of the relays. The results show that this strategy leads to the definition of a broad region of prices in which multihopping solutions can achieve the following advantages over classical single-hop architectures: operator's revenues and provided datarates increase significantly, the users' appreciation of the service is enhanced, and the average interference level of the network is lowered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2005
Series
IEEEVTS Vehicular Technology Conference. Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038 ; Volume 61, Issue 4
Keyword
Frequency hopping, Resource allocation, Telecommunication repeaters, Transmitters
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7633 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2005.1543715 (DOI)000232179303009 ()2-s2.0-26444596147 (Scopus ID)0-7803-8887-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2005 IEEE 61st Vehicular Technology Conference -VTC 2005 - Spring Stockholm: Paving the Path for a Wireless Future; Stockholm; Sweden; 30 May 2005 through 1 June 2005
Note

QC 20100715

Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2014-12-03Bibliographically approved
3. Forwarding Incentives by Means of Resource Delegation and Rewards in Multihop Cellular Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forwarding Incentives by Means of Resource Delegation and Rewards in Multihop Cellular Networks
2005 (English)In: RVK05 - Radiovetenskap och kommunikation: Linköping 2005, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Multihop techniques have been shown to provide ameans to increase coverage and/or capacity in cellular net-works. The concept is, however, challenged by a lackof forwarding incentives. Studies of a scheme called Re-source Delegation and pricing based rewards, have shownthat multihop solutions can significantly increase operatorrevenue, user data rates and service appreciation while atthe same time lowering the interference level in the net-work; compared to classical cellular architectures.Previous work has focused on the gains on a systemlevel. In this paper1 we investigate the data rate gains on aper-user level and discuss some implementational aspects.In particular we study how a silent period associated withthe relay switching from receive to transmit mode affectsmultihopping performance.It is found that the larger part of the rate improvementsis attained by users far from the base stations. This in-dicates that resource delegation both increases the aver-age data rate and reduces the distance dependent spread inrates. It is also seen that the silent receive-transmit transi-tions of relays do not severely compromise the benefits ofresource delegation in a TDMA system.

Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7634 (URN)
Note
QC 20100715Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2011-01-17Bibliographically approved
4. Service Provisioning with Ad-Hoc Deployed High-Speed Access Points in Urban environments
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service Provisioning with Ad-Hoc Deployed High-Speed Access Points in Urban environments
2005 (English)In: 2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2005, IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, Vol. 3, 2019-2023 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 Exploiting user-deployed networks as part of a public infrastructure has been proposed as a concept to radically lower the cost of provisioning access and services in urban environments. An important question is how dense a network with spotty coverage has to be in order to support interesting services. In this paper1, we introduce a framework for evaluating the user-perceived performance for two service types, a time-critical news subscription service (involving streaming) and a more delay tolerant entertainment service ("web browsing"). The user terminals contain a memory cache and an "agent" that opportunistically downloads and stores relevant pieces of information as users walk close to the access points. Results show that above a critical access point density, that is still significantly lower than the one required for continuous coverage, the services start performing very well with little or no outdated information. In most studied scenarios, we are communication limited meaning that memory capacity is not a problem, but energy is.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2005
Keyword
Cache memory, HIgh speed networks, Information retrieval systems, Telecommunication services
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7635 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2005.1651794 (DOI)2-s2.0-34047143732 (Scopus ID)978-3-8007-2909-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2005 IEEE 16th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, PIMRC 2005
Note

QC 20100716

Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2016-04-19Bibliographically approved
5. "Word-of-Mouth" in Radio Access Markets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Word-of-Mouth" in Radio Access Markets
2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Opening up interoperability between wide and local area networks seems to be a very promising solution for delivering improved user experience while reducing overall service costs. In a scenario, where a single operator owns different types of networks, QoS provision can be achieved by introducing complex multi-system resource management. On the contrary, if local area networks are deployed by different entities, due to the lack of both coordination and centralized RRM management, the experienced QoS may drastically fluctuate, ranging from SLAs in wide area, to only ''best effort" expectations in local area networks.

In order for "nomadic" terminal agents to perform "informed" access selection decisions, we propose the adoption of "Word-of-Mouth" (WoM), a novel scheme for sharing, in a peer-to-peer fashion, information about the service quality experienced with different networks. The performances of our proposed WoM scheme have been evaluated for a file pre-fetching service, considering information characterized by various degrees of time criticality, when different RRM strategies are implemented in the local area networks. The results show that if a critical mass of terminal agents exchange experienced QoS information, the overall network selection decision is improved: terminal agents can estimate, on beforehand, which type of performances to expect with different candidate networks, and avoid to select those not satisfying service requirements. This, in turn brings two main positive effects: on one hand, user perceived performance is improved, and, on the other hand, the adoption of RRM strategies providing some degree QoS is incentivated.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
Keyword
Engineering, Electrical & Electronic; Telecommunications; Transportation Science & Technology
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7636 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2006.1682927 (DOI)000259580100154 ()2-s2.0-34047162438 (Scopus ID)978-0-7803-9391-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2006 IEEE 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2006-Spring; Melbourne; Australia; 7 May 2006 through 10 July 2006
Note

QC 20100716

Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2014-11-06Bibliographically approved
6. Services Provisioning and Terminal Cooperation in User-Deployed Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Services Provisioning and Terminal Cooperation in User-Deployed Networks
Show others...
2006 (English)In: IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications workshops, ISSN 2166-9570, E-ISSN 2166-9589Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exploiting high-speed user-deployed Access Points (APs) in public infrastructures has been proposed as one of the candidate solutions for reducing the cost of future radio access. A disadvantage is that, due to lack of deployment coordination, these types of network are likely to provide only partial coverage. For this reason, the set of services that could be successfully provided in these networks might be rather limited. In this paper we present a novel framework for modeling non-interactive " infotainment" services with different degrees of "time criticality", and utilize it for investigating the user service perception in "spotty" coverage networks. In order to hide the infrastructure sparsity to the end users, the terminals are assumed equipped with software agents that can "opportunistically" pre-fetch information, on behalf of their users. This can be done when in contact with an AP, or, through a peer-to-peer file exchange with other terminal agents that have previously accessed the same information. In this paper, for different service types, the relationship between AP density and service perception is investigated. Furthermore, the impact of peer-to-peer terminal cooperation is evaluated in respect to both infrastructure requirements and content access delay. The results show that already with moderate AP densities, user-deployed networks deliver acceptable service perception, especially for services with low time criticality. Furthermore, whenever a "critical" mass of users shares common interests, the adoption of a peer-to-peer exchange strategy brings the significant gains of infrastructure reduction and/or improved service perception.

National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7637 (URN)10.1109/PIMRC.2006.254288 (DOI)2-s2.0-44949130577 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC20100716

Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2016-12-12Bibliographically approved
7. Collaborative Information Revelation and Collusion in "Word-of Mouth" Access Selection Schemes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collaborative Information Revelation and Collusion in "Word-of Mouth" Access Selection Schemes
2007 (English)In: 2007 IEEE 65TH VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE, 2007, 282-286 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

"Word-of-Mouth", a novel scheme for sharing the service quality experienced with different local networks, is presented and evaluated as a distributed solution for performing user-initiated access selection in a multi-system scenario.

If only partial information, about the different access alternatives, is available, by sharing and processing individually discovered information, terminal agents can collectively reveal otherwise concealed information and perform more informed access selection decisions. Introducing collusion mechanisms, between low performing networks and terminal agents, we investigate the robustness, of our distributed mechanism, to the dissemination of false information. In a scenario in which user-deployed APs have different degrees of backbone capacity limitation we investigate, if local operators can attract more traffic, by monetarily bribing terminal agents to transfer false information. Furthermore, we evaluate, under which conditions the prediction capability of our scheme can still support roaming access selection decisions that improve user service appreciation.

The results show that if "enough" information, can be collected by independent sources, "economically rational" low performing APs can be effectively prevented from both concealing information and/or attempting to influence their reputation through collusive behavior.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1550-2252
Keyword
Engineering, Electrical & Electronic; Remote Sensing; Telecommunications
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7638 (URN)10.1109/VETECS.2007.70 (DOI)000252237600058 ()2-s2.0-34547322023 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0265-6 (ISBN)
Conference
65th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Dublin, IRELAND, APR 22-25, 2007
Note
QC 20100716Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2010-11-12Bibliographically approved
8. Distributed and Centralized Mobility-Aware Caching Schemes for Collaborative Service Provision in User-Deployed Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed and Centralized Mobility-Aware Caching Schemes for Collaborative Service Provision in User-Deployed Networks
2007 (English)In: 66th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, 2007, 309-314 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Opening up to public access, a collection of user-deployed APs has the potential to reduce service costs and improve user service perception, especially for delay tolerant services. However, since the individual APs composing such a network are typically owned and operated by different users, the achievable performances are likely to be limited by the lack of coordination. By adopting an Inter AP communication Protocol (IAPP) that allows APs to collaborate in exchanging messages about the information requested by potentially incoming users, the APs are capable to start caching information, even before the users reach their communication ranges. In a multi-user scenario, in which the backbone capacity limits the performances of the APs, a set of distributed backbone resource management schemes, differing in their degrees of collaboration between APs and their mobility-awareness, are proposed and evaluated in respect to both a centralized caching server solution and a non cooperative scheme. The results show that, at the cost of increased memory requirements, collaborative caching brings significant improvements to both backbone capacity utilization and average user rates, as compared to the non cooperating scheme. At the same time, we show that for a centralized server solution to outperform our collaborative caching scheme, the central server needs to have a backbone capacity comparable to sum of the capacities of the individual APs deployed in the service area.

Series
IEEE VTS Vehicular Technology Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1090-3038
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7639 (URN)10.1109/VETECF.2007.78 (DOI)000257697000062 ()2-s2.0-47649119550 (Scopus ID)978-1-4244-0263-2 (ISBN)
Conference
66th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Baltimore, MD, SEP 30-OCT 03, 2007
Note
QC 20100716Available from: 2007-11-13 Created: 2007-11-13 Last updated: 2010-11-12Bibliographically approved

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