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A study of Chinese strategies for energy-efficient housing developments from an architect's perspective, combined with Swedish experiences and game theory
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
2009 (English)In: Civil engineering and environmental systems (Print), ISSN 1028-6608, E-ISSN 1029-0249, Vol. 26, no 4, 323-338 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy issue is always an important factor in sustainable housing developments. Over the years, a number of energy-saving techniques have been developed to reduce consumption of primary energy and utilise renewable energy in architectural designs. However, the real situation regarding energy-efficient buildings has improved rather slowly during the recent decades, both in the developing and developed countries. Hammarby Sjostad is one of the largest urban housing developments in Europe but is built to standards twice as strict as those currently being applied for new housing, including energy consumption. Eco-villages are small-scale housing developments, usually in the suburbs, where residents also try to create highly specific ecological environments. There are two basic paradigms to solve the current housing problem: top-down (provider paradigm) or bottom-up (support paradigm). This paper analyses the differences between these, especially from an energy efficiency perspective. Housing development is a gaming process between diverse stakeholders. All the stakeholders try to choose different actions in an attempt to maximise their returns. If the proposals made by the architects and engineers are not consistent with the interests of other stakeholders, they have little chance of being applied in actual projects. This paper describes systematic development strategies for the energy-efficient housing project Jun Lin Zijin, a Chinese residential and commercial project furthering the progress of design and construction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2009. Vol. 26, no 4, 323-338 p.
Keyword [en]
Swedish housing, China, Hammarby Sjostad, eco-village, energy efficiency, game theory, public participant
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7643DOI: 10.1080/10286600802151853ISI: 000271510700002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-70350746093OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7643DiVA: diva2:12730
Note
Uppdaterad från submitted till published(20101105) QC 20101105Available from: 2007-11-14 Created: 2007-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Approaches to energy efficient building development: studying under Chinese contexts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approaches to energy efficient building development: studying under Chinese contexts
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents a general description of approaches to energy efficient building development under Chinese contexts. The purpose of the work is to discuss how Chinese building development can be approved from an energy saving perspective.

Building development is a complicated process that relates to many stakeholders’ interests. The developed countries have studied in this field extensively for several decades. Generally, the approaches to energy saving can be set at three levels: administration, construction industry and architectural design. More new strict codes for energy efficient buildings are being issued for enforcement. At the same time, many research institutes have developed Building Environmental Assessment (BEA) methods, where energy efficiency is an important factor in the models. Various technical solutions for energy efficiency are developed as well.

The administrative approaches are not the main objective discussed in the thesis, though the importance of them is undeniable. BEA systems are not only assessment methods, but also market-based stimulating approaches for sustainability of construction market. Technical methods have been developed for a long period. Passive House and Low Exergy (LowEx) Systems are two representative examples in European countries.

All of these approaches are relatively unfamiliar to Chinese architects and developers, let alone their effect and applicability. The thesis tries to analyse this situation and their applicability within Chinese context.

In China to a certain project, the importance of technical issues is relatively recognized. However, a few successful individual cases in technique can not change the reality that most of new building development has failed in energy efficiency in China. This is a serious situation when China is in an enormous expansion phase in building new houses. The thesis tries to discuss the reasons for this phenomenon. One reason could be that the stakeholders in the developing process are not aware of the importance of collaboration which is the only method to get “Both Win” according to Game theory. The thesis discusses a paradigm to replace two traditional linear paradigms in building developing process. Architects should act as coordinators of different stakeholders rather than technical supporters.

The thesis tries to discuss the propositional route of developing energy efficient buildings. Technical approaches are basic research, which presents the concepts that have been proved realizable; BEA encourages developers to develop more energy efficient buildings for economic benefit, which will make good demonstrations for whole market; national laws and policies are final approaches, which ensure that every project will have good performance of energy efficiency. When the old standardization and legislation are finished, a new cycle will begin with more advanced techniques.

China government has started the progress to enhance energy efficiency. However, this process will be tough and slow. The thesis discusses Chinese special conditions and the problems that cry out for solution in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. vi, 28 p.
Series
Trita-KET-IM, ISSN 1402-7615 ; 2007:23
Keyword
Energy efficiency, China, Passive House, Low Exergy system, Built Environmental Assessment, LCA, Swedish housing, Hammarby Sjöstad, Eco-village, Game theory, System theory, Soft Systems Methodology
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4534 (URN)
Presentation
2007-11-12, V12, KTH, Teknikringen 72, Stockholm, 13:10
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101105Available from: 2007-11-14 Created: 2007-11-14 Last updated: 2010-11-05Bibliographically approved

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