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On the Energy Efficiency of MIMO Hybrid Beamforming for Millimeter-Wave Systems With Nonlinear Power Amplifiers
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5526-9213
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2289-3159
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3599-5584
Purdue Univ, Sch Elect & Comp Engn, W Lafayette, IN 47906 USA..
2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 7208-7221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) millimeter-wave (mm-wave) systems are vulnerable to hardware impairments due to operating at high frequencies and employing a large number of radio-frequency hardware components. In particular, nonlinear power amplifiers (PAs) employed at the transmitter distort the signal when operated close to saturation due to energy efficiency considerations. In this paper, we study the performance of an MIMO mm-wave hybrid beamforming scheme in the presence of nonlinear PAs. First, we develop a statistical model for the transmitted signal in such systems and show that the spatial direction of the inband distortion is shaped by the beamforming filter. This suggests that even in the large antenna regime, where narrow beams can be steered toward the receiver, the impact of nonlinear PAs should not be ignored. Then, by employing a realistic power consumption model for the PAs, we investigate the tradeoff between spectral and energy efficiency in such systems. Our results show that increasing the transmit power level when the number of transmit antennas grows large can be counter-effective in terms of energy efficiency. Furthermore, using numerical simulation, we show that when the transmit power is large, analog beamforming leads to higher spectral and energy efficiency compared to digital and hybrid beamforming schemes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC , 2018. Vol. 17, no 11, p. 7208-7221
Keywords [en]
Millimeter wave systems, hybrid beamforming, power amplifier, energy efficiency, spectral efficiency
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239804DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2018.2865786ISI: 000449978700008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85052704109OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-239804DiVA, id: diva2:1276572
Note

QC 20190108

Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved

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Moghadam, Nima N.Fodor, GaborBengtsson, Mats

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