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Three-Tone Characterization of Nonlinear Memory Effects in Radio Frequency Power Amplifier
WesternGeco AS, Oslo.
Ericsson AB, Gävle.
Department of Electronics, University of Gävle.
2007 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, Vol. 56, no 6, 2646-2657 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A stepped three-tone measurement technique based on digitally modulated baseband signals is used in characterizing radio-frequency power amplifiers (PAs). The bandwidths of the stepped measurement were 8.8 MHz for the input signal and 26.4 MHz for the output signal. A PA designed for third-generation mobile telecommunication system was analyzed. The amplitude and phase of the third-order Volterra kernel were determined from the identified intermodulation products. The properties of the Volterra kernel along certain paths in the 3-D frequency space were analyzed and compared to some box models for non-linear systems. The main symmetry of the third-order Volterra kernel of this PA was found to be of the type given by the cascaded quadratic nonlinearities with a linear filter in between (a Hammerstein-Wiener system), and frequency dependence, i.e., memory effects, was found to be due to the effects at the baseband.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 56, no 6, 2646-2657 p.
Keyword [en]
Behavioral model; Nonlinear; Power amplifier (PA); Radio frequency (RF); Symmetry properties; Volterra kernel
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7756DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2007.907958ISI: 000251745500065OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7756DiVA: diva2:12878
Note
QC 20100716. Uppdaterad från Accepted till Published 20100716.Available from: 2007-12-07 Created: 2007-12-07 Last updated: 2010-08-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Measurement Techniques for Characterization of Power Amplifiers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement Techniques for Characterization of Power Amplifiers
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis a sampling time domain measurement system primarily intended for measurements on radio frequency power amplifiers is discussed. The need for such a measurement system is established. Impairments due to non-ideal measurement instruments are discussed as well as methods to compensate for these impairments. Techniques to improve upon the raw measurement performance of the measurement instruments with regard to bandwidth, dynamic range, linear and nonlinear distortion are discussed.

| A method to simultaneously find the phase and amplitude ripple of a vector signal generator and a vector signal analyzer is presented. The method is verified with extensive measurements.

Two techniques, frequency stitching and Zhu’s generalized sampling theorem, to extend the effective measurement bandwidth of the measurement system is discussed and evaluated with measurements. They are both found to be able to extend the effective bandwidth for measurements of output signals of nonlinear power amplifiers with more than five times.

The measurement system is used for sampled input – output measurements of power amplifiers and the obtained data are fitted to different behavioral power amplifier models including memory. Some different behavioral models are evaluated and compared for different kinds of power amplifiers. A neural network model and extensions to the well-known parallel Hammerstein model are specifically discussed. The parallel Hammerstein model are also used together with frequency stitching and Zhu’s generalized sampling theorem.

A general hardware and software structure of a versatile measurement system based on virtual instruments for measurements on power amplifiers is discussed in some detail. Special attention is given to the software architecture and to the concepts of hardware and software reusability.

An automated, fast, accurate and production-friendly method for two-tone power and frequency sweep measurements, including measurement of the phase of the intermodulation products in addition to the amplitude, is also presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. 59 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2007:063
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4566 (URN)978-91-7178-758-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-12-14, Sal 99:133, Högskolan i Gävle, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100823Available from: 2007-12-07 Created: 2007-12-07 Last updated: 2010-08-24Bibliographically approved
2. Radio Frequency Power Amplifiers: Behavioral Modeling, Parameter Reduction, and Digital Predistortion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Radio Frequency Power Amplifiers: Behavioral Modeling, Parameter Reduction, and Digital Predistortion
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This work considers behavioral modeling, parameter-reduction, and digital predistortion of radio frequency power amplifiers. Due to the use of modern digital modulation methods, contemporary power amplifiers are frequently subjected to signals characterized by considerable bandwidths and fast changing envelopes. As a result, traditional quasi-memoryless amplitudeto-amplitude (AM/AM) and amplitude-to-phase (AM/PM) characteristics are no longer sufficient to describe and model the behavior of power amplifiers; neither can they be successfully used for linearization. In this thesis, sampled input and output data are used for identification and validation of several block structure models with memory. The time-discrete Volterra model, the Wiener model, the Hammerstein model, and the radial-basis function neural network are all identified and compared with respect to in-band and out-of-band errors. Two different signal types (multitones and noise), with different powers, peak-to-average ratios, and bandwidths have been used as inputs to the amplifier. Furthermore, two different power amplifiers were investigated, one designed for third generation mobile telecommunication systems and one for second generation systems.

A stepped three-tone measurement technique based on digitally modulated baseband signals is also presented. The third-order Volterra kernel parameters were determined from identified intermodulation products. The symmetry properties of the Volterra kernel along various portions of the three dimensional frequency space were analyzed and compared with the symmetry of the Wiener and Hammerstein systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. x, 59 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2007:010
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24198 (URN)978-91-7178-589-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-05-25, Sal 99:131, Högskolan i Gävle, Kungsbäcksvägen 47, Gävle, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100824Available from: 2010-08-24 Created: 2010-08-24 Last updated: 2011-09-08Bibliographically approved

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