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A Review of Physical and Numerical Approaches for the Study of Gas Stirring in Ladle Metallurgy
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing. Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing, P.R. China.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4384-7984
Cent Iron & Steel Res Inst, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9775-0382
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2019 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 555-577Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article presents a review of the research into gas stirring in ladle metallurgy carried out over the past few decades. Herein, the physical modeling experiments are divided into four major areas: (1) mixing and homogenization in the ladle; (2) gas bubble formation, transformation, and interactions in the plume zone; (3) inclusion behavior at the steel-slag interface and in the molten steel; and (4) open eye formation. Several industrial trials have also been carried out to optimize gas stirring and open eye formation. Approaches for selecting criteria for scaling to guarantee flow similarity between industrial trials and physical modeling experiments are discussed. To describe the bubble behavior and two-phase plume structure, four main mathematical models have been used in different research fields: (1) the quasi-single-phase model, (2) the volume of fluid (VOF) model, (3) the Eulerian multiphase (E-E) model, and (4) the Eulerian-Lagrangian (E-L) model. In recent years, the E-E model has been used to predict gas stirring conditions in the ladle, and specific models in commercial packages, as well as research codes, have been developed gradually to describe the complex physical and chemical phenomena. Furthermore, the coupling of turbulence models with multiphase models is also discussed. For physical modeling, some general empirical rules have not been analyzed sufficiently. Based on a comparison with the available experimental results, it is found that the mathematical models focusing on the mass transfer phenomenon and inclusion behaviors at the steel-slag interface, vacuum degassing at the gas-liquid interface, dissolution rate of the solid alloy at the liquid-solid interface, and the combination of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics need to be improved further. To describe industrial conditions using mathematical methods and improve numerical modeling, the results of physical modeling experiments and industrial trials must offer satisfactory validations for the improvement of numerical modeling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER , 2019. Vol. 50, no 1, p. 555-577
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Materials Engineering
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URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-243935DOI: 10.1007/s11663-018-1446-xISI: 000456070300052Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85056988962OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-243935DiVA, id: diva2:1296039
Note

QC 20190313

Available from: 2019-03-13 Created: 2019-03-13 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved

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Liu, YuErsson, MikaelJönsson, Pär Göran

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