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In-situ investigation of localized corrosion of aluminum alloys in chloride solution using integrated EC-AFM/SECM technique
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4431-0671
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9453-1333
Sapa Technology, Finspång.
2005 (English)In: Electrochemical and solid-state letters, ISSN 1099-0062, E-ISSN 1944-8775, Vol. 8, no 6, B21-B24 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) has been integrated with electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM), and applied for in situ studies of localized corrosion of Al alloys in NaCl solution. The instrument utilizes a dual mode probe, which functions both as a normal cantilever and as an ultramicroelectrode. The I-/I3- redox mediator was used for mapping of local electrochemical current. Concurrent topography and electrochemical activity maps have been obtained on the same surface area with micrometer lateral resolution. Preliminary results show ongoing localized dissolution related to intermetallic particles in the Al alloys, which may occur well below the breakdown potential.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2005. Vol. 8, no 6, B21-B24 p.
Keyword [en]
Aluminum alloys; Atomic force microscopy; Intermetallics; Microstructure; Scanning electron microscopy; Sodium chloride
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7852DOI: 10.1149/1.1911900ISI: 000229056000020Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-20844438052OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7852DiVA: diva2:12997
Note
QC 20100702Available from: 2007-12-18 Created: 2007-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanistic studies of localized corrosion of Al alloys by high resolution in-situ and ex-situ probing techniques
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanistic studies of localized corrosion of Al alloys by high resolution in-situ and ex-situ probing techniques
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

A multi-analytical approach based on in-situ and ex-situ local probing techniques was employed to investigate localized corrosion mechanisms of some aluminum alloys in chloride containing solutions, focusing on the influence of intermetallic particles (IMPs) in the alloys. In the EN AW-3003 alloy, SEM-EDS analysis revealed constituent and dispersoid IMPs. There are two types of constituent IMPs, with size ranging from 0.5 to several μm, and composition typically Al6(Fe,Mn) or Al12(Mn,Fe)3Si, respectively,having a Mn/Fe ratio of about 1:1. Fine dispersoids of 0.5 μm or less in size normally have the composition Al12Mn3Si1-2. Scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM measurements showed that the constituent IMPs have a higher Volta potential compared to the matrix, and the Volta potential difference increased with particle size, probably related to the composition of the IMPs. The SKPFM results also showed a Volta potential minimum in the boundary region adjacent to some larger IMPs.

The open-circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements indicated local electrochemical activities occurring on the surface, and active-like dissolution in the acidic solutions, but a passive-like behavior in the near-neutral solutions. Infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy measurements after exposure and thermodynamic calculations suggested the formation of mixtures of aluminum oxyhydroxide and acetate on the surface in acetic acid solutions. The formation and fraction of dominant species of the corrosion products depend on the pH of the solution, and aluminum chloride compounds may form at very low pH.

Moreover, an integrated in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanningelectrochemical microscopy (SECM) set-up was used to investigate the localized activities on the surface. With a dual mode probe, acting as both AFM tip and SECM microelectrode, concurrent topography and electrochemical current images were obtained on the same area of the surface. Numerical simulations of the SECM suggested a micrometer lateral resolution under favorable conditions and the ability to resolve μmsized active sites with a separation distance of about 3 μm or larger. The simulations were verified by SECM mapping of the aluminum alloys in the chloride solutions. The AFM/SECM measurements revealed enhanced cathodic activity on some larger IMPs and local anodic dissolution around larger IMPs. In-situ AFM monitoring confirmed preferential dissolution in the boundary region adjacent to some of these IMPs. The results elucidate the micro-galvanic effect and size effect of the IMPs during the initiation of localized corrosion of the Al alloys.

Furthermore, differences in corrosion properties between EN AW-3003 and a newly developed Al–Mn–Si–Zr alloy were studied with a similar approach. Compared to EN AW-3003, the new alloy had a smaller number of particles with a large Volta potential difference relative to the matrix. In slightly corrosive solutions extensive localized dissolution and deposition of corrosion products occurred on EN AW-3003, whereas only a small number of corroding sites and “tunnel-like” pits occurred on the Al–Mn–Si–Zr alloy. The lower corrosion activity and the smaller tunnel-like pits resulted in lower material loss of the Al–Mn–Si–Zr alloy, which is beneficial for applications using a thin material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. viii, 100 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2007:82
Keyword
localized corrosion, pitting, aluminum alloy, intermetallic particle, Volta potential, cathodic activity, micro-galvanic effect, size dependence, SKPFM, in-situ AFM, integrated AFM/SECM, numerical simulation, micrometer resolution, EIS.
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4588 (URN)978-91-7178-817-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-01-21, Lecture Hall F3, Building F, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100702Available from: 2007-12-18 Created: 2007-12-18 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved

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Pan, JinshanLeygraf, Christofer

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