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How density, diversity, land use and neighborhood type influences bus mobility in the swedish city of karlstad: Mixing spatial analytic and typo-morphological approaches to assess the indirect effect of urban form on travel
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1790-0254
2018 (English)In: Journal of Transport and Land Use, ISSN 1938-7849, E-ISSN 1938-7849, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 769-789Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the research on the effect of urban form on travel, a set of D-variables (density, diversity, design, destination accessibility, etc.) describes land use. Typo-morphology studies the historical emergence and evolution of urban patterns and their elements. In the typo-morphological approach, land use is an underlying element of neighborhood type. Neighborhood type defines urban areas that are relatively similar according to a range of attributes, such as building types, lot sizes, street layouts and land uses. This paper juxtaposes these two approaches to investigate the effect of density and diversity, land use and neighborhood type on bus mobility in the Swedish city of Karlstad. The results show that the number of residents and jobs in standard 400-meter walksheds around bus stops explains a third of the variation in bus ridership, which corresponds to previous studies in Sweden. The scatter plots with neighborhood types indicate that bus patronage variables and the D-variables cluster in intervals. This information about ranges and maximums in bus patronage in different neighborhood types is particularly important for urban designers and planners who work with typologies, form-based codes (FBCs) or transit-oriented development (TOD).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Minnesota , 2018. Vol. 11, no 1, p. 769-789
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247238DOI: 10.5198/jtlu.2018.1089ISI: 000475474400019Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85055750194OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-247238DiVA, id: diva2:1301508
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2017-003267
Note

QC 20190402

Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Urban Form and Mobility - Analysis and Information to Catalyse Sustainable Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban Form and Mobility - Analysis and Information to Catalyse Sustainable Development
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Urban transportation today consumes scarce resources of fossil fuels and it is a major cause for environmental damage and accelerating climate change. To achieve sustainable mobility in the cities, it is necessary to improve energy efficiency and lower carbon emissions through the promotion of walking, cycling and especially public transportation.

The urban form and the embeddedness of automobility is a challenging obstacle on the way towards sustainable mobility and cities. Many neighbourhoods and cities, particularly in developed countries like Sweden, were specifically designed and developed to accommodate the private car, individual mobility and freedom of movement. It is impossible to walk or cycle and the public transportation is not competitive. The lack of mobility choices in these neighbourhoods and cities hinders the possibilities to shift towards more sustainable travel alternatives. Urban designers and planners can help with redesigning these neighbourhoods and creating urban forms that encourage walking, cycling and increased use of public transportation if they are aware about the possible modal shares, energy efficiency, environmental performance and carbon implications of transportation in existing and newly planned neighbourhoods.

This Doctoral Thesis examines Swedish urbanisation and the historical integration of public transportation in competition with other transportation modes. It analyses emergence of typical neighbourhoods that oriented towards walking (the pre-industrial city), to public transportation (the industrializing city), to the private automobile (the modern/industrial city) and ultimately to a wide range of mobility choices (the postmodern/post-industrial city with sustainable city neighbourhoods). It investigates furthermore the effect of urban form variables (including neighbourhood type) on travel (modal shares of public transportation). Based upon this empirical knowledge, the Doctoral Thesis proposes a mobility choices model based on urban form and accessibility factors commonly used in urban planning, design and development practices. The mobility choices model produces heat maps and visually informs about the integration with walking, cycling, public transportation and private car, modal shares, carbon emissions and transportation energy use. This information can (potentially) trigger urban transformation or redesign car-oriented neighbourhoods to better integrate energy efficient and environmentally friendly mobility alternatives and catalyse the development of more sustainable cities.

Abstract [sv]

Den urbana utmaningen är att bryta transportsystemets oljeberoende och miljöpåverkan. Transporterna drivs idag av begränsade fossila bränslen som intensifierar klimatförändringar. Ambitionen är att skapa integrerade, multimodala transportsystem där det är lätt att gå, cykla och fullt utnyttja kollektivtrafikens potential.

Många stadsdelar och städer, särskilt i Sverige, utformades enligt privatbilismens credo om frihet att röra sig när som helst och vart som helst. Idag är det omöjligt att gå eller cykla och kollektivtrafiken är inte konkurrenskraftig i flesta städer som utvecklades för privata bilen. Stadens form hindrar möjligheterna att flytta från privata bilen till mer hållbara resealternativ. Stadsplanerare kan hjälpa till att förändra bilanpassade stadsdelar och bygga nya stadsmiljöer som uppmuntrar gång, cykel och kollektivtrafik, om de får information om transportenergieffektivitet och miljöpåverkan.

Denna doktorsavhandling undersöker den svenska urbaniseringen och anpassning av kollektivtrafiken i svenska städer. Den analyserar utveckling av typiska stadsdelar anpassade för att gå (den preindustriella staden), åka kollektivtrafik (den industrialiseringsstaden), privatbilismen (den moderna industriella staden) och den postmoderna/postindustriella staden (med nya hållbara stadsdelar som utvecklas vid multimodala alléer) samt undersöker effekten av bebyggelse (urbanformvariabler inklusive stadstyper eller typområde) på resvanor (andel kollektivtrafik). Utifrån denna empiriska kunskap, föreslår doktorsavhandlingen en transpordeklarationsmodell baserat på bebyggelse och tillgänglighetsfaktorer som vanligen används i stadsplanering, -utformning och -utveckling. En transportdeklaration är ett sätt att informera om hur väl en byggnad är integrerad i förhållande till gång-, cykel- och kollektivtrafik samt trafik med privatbil. Transpordeklarationen producerar kartor och informerar visuellt möjligheter att gå, cykla, åka kollektivt och köra bil, prognoserar färdmedelsfördelning, koldioxidutsläpp och transportenergianvändning. Denna information kan (potentiellt) inspirera stadsförvandling och omforma bilanpassade stadsdelar för att bättre integrera energieffektiva och miljövänliga mobilitetsalternativ och katalysera utvecklingen mot hållbara städer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 150
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1911
Keywords
urban form, sustainable mobility, mobility choices, urban design, accessibility
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Architectural Engineering Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251325 (URN)978-91-7873-235-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-14, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova, 2009-01233Vinnova, 2015-03483Swedish Transport Administration, A-2013-0962Swedish Energy Agency, P44455-1
Note

QC20190515

Available from: 2019-05-16 Created: 2019-05-11 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved

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