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Reaction Injection Molding of Hydrophilic-in-Hydrophobic Femtolitre-Well Arrays
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
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2019 (English)In: Microsystems & Nanoengineering, E-ISSN 2055-7434, no 5, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Patterning of micro- and nanoscale topologies and surface properties of polymer devices is of particular importance for a broad range of life science applications, including cell-adhesion assays and highly sensitive bioassays. The manufacturing of such devices necessitates cumbersome multiple-step fabrication procedures and results in surface properties which degrade over time. This critically hinders their wide-spread dissemination. Here, we simultaneously mold and surface energy pattern microstructures in off-stoichiometric thiol-ene by area-selective monomer self-assembly in a rapid micro-reaction injection molding cycle. We replicated arrays of 1,843,650 hydrophilic-in-hydrophobic femtolitre-wells with long-term stable surface properties and magnetically trapped beads with 75% and 87.2% efficiency in single- and multiple-seeding events, respectively. These results form the basis for ultrasensitive digital biosensors, specifically, and for the fabrication of medical devices and life science research tools, generally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019. no 5, article id 25
Keywords [sv]
Reaction injection molding
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248300DOI: 10.1038/s41378-019-0065-2ISI: 000470930600001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-248300DiVA, id: diva2:1302504
Note

QC 20190405

Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Thiol-ene Nanostructuring
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thiol-ene Nanostructuring
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Improving the health and well-being of humankind does not only constitute

part of our moral codes, but is also enlisted as the number three goal of

the 2030 agenda for sustainable development set by the UN. Fulfilling such

objective in the regions of resource-poor settings or for age groups with more

vulnerability to infectious agents demands immediate actions. This has necessitated

novel ways of rapid and ultra-sensitive diagnostics to provide compact

and affordable systems, e.g. for an early detection of bacteria and viruses.

The fields of bio-micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS/NEMS)

and lab-on-a-chip (LoC) have been founded based on such demands, but

critically challenged by problems partly associated with manufacturing and

material domains and biosensing methods. The fabrication methods for the

miniaturization of features and components are often complicated and expensive,

the commonly used materials are typically not adaptable to industrial

settings, and the sensing mechanisms are sometimes not sensitive enough for

the detection of lowly-concentrated samples.

In this thesis, new methods of ultra-miniaturization, as well as conventional

cleanroom-based techniques, for nanopatterning of well-defined topographies

in off-stoichiometry thiol-ene-(epoxy) polymers are presented. In addition,

their use for several sensing applications has been demonstrated. The

first part of the thesis gives an introduction to the field of BioMEMS/NEMS.

The second part of the thesis presents a technical background about the

prevalent methods of polymer micro- and nanofabrication, implementation

of the resulting polymer structures for different sensing applications, along

with the existing challenges and shortcomings associated with state of the

art. The third part of the thesis presents e-beam nanostructuring of thiol-ene

resist, for the first time, achieving the smallest and densest features reported

in these polymer networks. The thiol-ene-based polymer also represents a

novel class of e-beam resist resulting in structures with reactive surface nature.

The fourth part of the thesis demonstrates the use of thiol-ene-epoxy

systems for nanoimprint lithography and further shows the structuring of

high-aspect-ratio and hierarchical topologies via single-step UV-NIL. The fifth

part of the thesis introduces Micro- and NanoRIM platforms for scalable and

off-cleanroom manufacturing of microfluidic devices and nanostructuring of

materials in thiol-ene (-epoxy) systems. The sixth part of the thesis exhibits

the implementation of the noted nanofabrication methods for different

BioMEMS/NEMS applications including protein nanopatterning, simultaneous

molding and surface energy patterning, ultra-sensitive digital biosensing,

and facile quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor packaging.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 109
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:32
Keywords
Nanostructuring, thiol-ene, OSTE, electron beam lithography (EBL), reaction injection molding (RIM), nanoimprint lithography (NIL), BioNEMS, QCM, digital bioassay, protein patterning, Lab-on-a-chip, polymer
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235348 (URN)978-91-7873-154-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-04-26, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH Royal Institute of Technolog, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190405

Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-04-08Bibliographically approved

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Haraldsson, Klas Tommyvan der Wijngaart, Wouter

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