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Long-term metal retention processes in a peat bog: Field studies, data and modelling
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The study was inspired by the need to assess long-term metal retention in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The long-term processes in landfills are poorly known due to the relatively short time that such landfills have been in existence. Natural analogues where similar metal binding processes could be expected were therefore sought for.

The work described in this thesis aims to elucidate the long-term transport and attenuation processes involved in the retention of heavy metals in a peat bog, through field studies and modelling. The Oostriku peat bog (central Estonia) has been exposed to metal-rich groundwater discharge over a long period of time and was found to have accumulated high concentrations of Fe, other heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn), and As. It was characterised in detail with respect to metal depth distribution and main metal binding mechanisms (using an optimised Tessier extraction scheme).

The oxidation of metal sulphides in the surrounding carbonate bedrock was proposed to be a possible long-term source of heavy metals in the water emerging in a spring at the peat site. The water in the spring and peat pore-water was sampled and analysed. The dissolution sequence of the sulphide minerals and evolution of the water composition along a flowpath in the carbonate rock were modelled. Resulting aqueous phase concentration of major and minor elements are discussed in relation to governing geochemical processes. The simulated water composition was compared with that observed.

Retention of metals transported with water through the peat was assessed through modelling equilibrium sorption on solid organic matter and amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide by using a simplified quantitative modelling approach and independently obtained data. Dynamic evolution of metal sorption fronts along a peat profile over time was modelled to test metal-metal competition effects. A possible formation of ferric oxyhydroxide in the peat bog was also assessed with the model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm,: KTH , 2005. , vi, 80 p.
Series
Trita-KET, ISSN 1104-3466 ; 219
Keyword [en]
Peat, heavy metals distribution, sequential extraction, binding mechanisms, modelling, metal sulphide oxidation, aqueous composition, sorption, humic substances, ferric oxyhydroxide
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-460ISBN: 91-7178-164-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-460DiVA: diva2:13039
Public defence
2005-11-03, D3, Lindstedtsväg 5, EntrePlan, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101001Available from: 2005-10-21 Created: 2005-10-21 Last updated: 2010-10-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Accumulation of heavy metals in Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: site description, conceptual modelling and geochemical modelling of the source of the metals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accumulation of heavy metals in Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: site description, conceptual modelling and geochemical modelling of the source of the metals
2004 (English)In: Environmental Geology, ISSN 0943-0105, E-ISSN 1432-0495, Vol. 45, 731-742 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxidation of sulphides leads to the dissolution of metals, which are transported with water and accumulate at geochemical barriers. Such barriers can form in peat bogs. This paper gives an introduction into the long-term processes in Oostriku peat bog where high accumulations of heavy metals are observed. Peat and water samples are analysed for Fe, As and heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) using different methods. A concept is based on the observations. Metals are leached by sulphide oxidation in the carbonate rocks upstream of the peat. The water feeds the peat from below. The metals are sorbed and precipitated in the peat. The sulphide oxidation is simulated to examine the origin and metal speciation in the water. The simulated solution is compared with the groundwater entering the peat. The results showed a fair agreement for the major constituents. There were considerable differences for species with low concentrations.

Keyword
peat bog, heavy metals, sulphide oxidation, model
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7877 (URN)10.1007/s00254-003-0931-x (DOI)000220519700014 ()2-s2.0-1642367508 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20101001Available from: 2005-10-21 Created: 2005-10-21 Last updated: 2010-10-01Bibliographically approved
2. Modelling of sulphide mineral oxidation as a source of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of sulphide mineral oxidation as a source of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7878 (URN)
Note
QC 20101001Available from: 2005-10-21 Created: 2005-10-21 Last updated: 2010-10-01Bibliographically approved
3. Accumulation of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: Determination of binding processes by means of sequential leaching.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accumulation of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: Determination of binding processes by means of sequential leaching.
2007 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 147, no 1, 291-300 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Oostriku peat bog (central Estonia) has been exposed to metal-rich groundwater discharge over a long period of time and has accumulated high concentrations of Fe (up to 40 wt-%), heavy metals (e.g. Ph, Zn, Mn, Cu), and As. In this study, the peat was characterised with respect to composition and metal content with depth. The peat pore water was analysed and compared to a spring water emerging at the site. Sequential extraction, using a Tessier scheme optimised for iron-rich sediments, was used to understand the relative roles of binding mechanisms involved in the retention of different metals in the peat. Significant difference in depth distribution was found between different metals bound in the peat, which was partly attributed to varying compositions of the peat with depth and different dominant binding mechanisms for different metals.

Keyword
peat bog, aqueous composition, heavy metal distribution, sequential extraction, binding mechanisms
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7879 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2005.10.048 (DOI)000245475400035 ()2-s2.0-33847379862 (Scopus ID)
Note
Tidigare titel: Accumulation of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog: determination of binding processes by means of sequential extraction. QC 20101001Available from: 2005-10-21 Created: 2005-10-21 Last updated: 2010-10-01Bibliographically approved
4. Modelling retention of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: comparison of predicted and observed results
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling retention of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: comparison of predicted and observed results
2008 (English)In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 23, no 6, 1498-1512 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the retention of Ca and other metals (Pb, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn) in the Oostriku peat bog (central Estonia) was modelled. Equilibrium sorption of metals on amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide and solid organic matter was simulated at steady-state. Ferric oxyhydroxide formation and possible precipitation of other metals (Mn, Pb and Cu) in the peat was also assessed. Evolution of metal sorption fronts along a peat profile over time was simulated with a dynamic model to test if metal-metal competition effects could cause Pb and Cu to sorb at higher amounts in the uppermost peat than in the lower peat, as observed in the field. The predicted sorbed amounts of metals were compared with those previously observed in the peat. In general, good agreement between both batch and dynamic model results and the independent observations at the Oostriku peat site was obtained. This suggests that the relatively simple model approach employed here might be generally useful for assessing other peat sites and similar applications.

Keyword
Biological materials, Calcium compounds, Copper compounds, Dynamic models
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7880 (URN)10.1016/j.apgeochem.2008.01.007 (DOI)000257134000008 ()2-s2.0-43949091129 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100923. Uppdaterad från Submitted till Published (20100923).Available from: 2005-10-21 Created: 2005-10-21 Last updated: 2010-09-23Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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