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Synthesis of Organic Chromophores for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is divided into four parts with organic chromophores for dye sensitized solar cells as the common feature and an introduction with general concepts of the dye sensitized solar cells.

The first part of the thesis describes the development of an efficient organic chromophore for dye sensitized solar cells. The chromophore consists of a triphenylamine moiety as an electron donor, a conjugated linker with a thiophene moiety and cyanoacrylic acid as an electron acceptor and anchoring group. During this work a strategy to obtain an efficient sensitizer was developed. Alternating the donor, linker or acceptor moieties independently, would give us the tool to tune the HOMO and LUMO energy levels of the chromophores. The following parts of this thesis regard this development strategy.

The second part describes the contributions to the HOMO and LUMO energy levels when alternating the linker moiety. By varying the linker the HOMO and LUMO energy levels was indeed shifted. Unexpected effects of the solar cell performances when increasing the linker length were revealed, however.

The third part describes the investigation of an alternative acceptor group, rhodanine-3-acetic acid, in combination with different linker lengths. The HOMO and LUMO energy level tuning was once again successfully shifted. The poor electronic coupling of the acceptor group to the semiconductor surface proved to be a problem for the overall efficiency of the solar cell, however.

The fourth part describes the contributions from different donor groups to the HOMO and LUMO energy levels and has so far been the most successful in terms of reaching high efficiencies in the solar cell. A top overall efficiency of 7.1 % was achieved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , 43 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2007:86
Keyword [en]
Organic Chromophores, Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4600ISBN: 978-91-7178-833-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4600DiVA: diva2:13044
Presentation
2008-01-25, D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101108Available from: 2008-01-09 Created: 2008-01-09 Last updated: 2010-11-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A novel organic chromophore for dye-sensitized nanostructured solar cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel organic chromophore for dye-sensitized nanostructured solar cells
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2006 (English)In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, no 21, 2245-2247 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel and efficient polyene-diphenylaniline dye for dye-sensitized solar cells has been synthesized. The dye has a short synthesis route and is readily adsorbed on TiO2 under a variety of dye-bath conditions. The overall solar-to-energy conversion efficiency is over 5% in the preliminary tests, in comparison with the conventional N719 dye which gives 6% under the same conditions. The dye is designed for future use also in solid state devices, with triarylamine based hole conductors.

Keyword
nanocrystalline tio2 electrodes, charge-transfer, conversion
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7881 (URN)10.1039/b603002e (DOI)000237715800011 ()2-s2.0-33744465236 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100716Available from: 2008-01-09 Created: 2008-01-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. Tuning the HOMO and LUMO Energy Levels of Organic Chromophores For Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tuning the HOMO and LUMO Energy Levels of Organic Chromophores For Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
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2007 (English)In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, no 72, 9550-9556 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of organic chromophores have been synthesized in order to approach optimal energy level composition in the TiO2-dye-iodide/triiodide system in the dye-sensitized solar cells. HOMO and LUMO energy level tuning is achieved by varying the conjugation between the triphenylamine donor and the cyanoacetic acid acceptor. This is supported by spectral and electrochemical experiments and TDDFT calculations. These results show that energetic tuning of the chromophores was successful and fulfilled the thermodynamic criteria for dye-sensitized solar cells, electrical losses depending on the size and orientation of the chromophores were observed.

Keyword
high-efficiency, coumarin dyes, tio2, acid, performance, derivatives, design, light
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7882 (URN)10.1021/jo701592x (DOI)000251313600017 ()
Note
QC 20100716Available from: 2008-01-09 Created: 2008-01-09 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Energy level tuning of organic dyes for fundamental studies of the oxide/dye/electrolyte interface in solar cells
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy level tuning of organic dyes for fundamental studies of the oxide/dye/electrolyte interface in solar cells
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(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7883 (URN)
Note
QC 20101108Available from: 2008-01-09 Created: 2008-01-09 Last updated: 2010-11-08Bibliographically approved
4. Molecular Engineering of Organic Chromophores for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular Engineering of Organic Chromophores for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Applications
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2008 (English)In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 130, 6259-6266 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Novel unsymmetrical organic sensitizers comprising donor, electron-conducting, and anchoring groups were engineered at a molecular level and synthesized for sensitization of mesoscopic titanium dioxide injection solar cells. The unsymmetrical organic sensitizers 3-(5-(4-(diphenylamino)styryl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (D5), 3-(5-bis(4-(diphenylamino)styryl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (D7), 5-(4-(bis(4-methoxyphenylamino)styryl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (D9), and 3-(5-bis(4,4'-dimethoxydiphenylamino)styryl)thiophen-2-yl)-2-cyanoacrylic acid (D11) anchored onto TiO2 and were tested in dye-sensitized solar cell with a volatile electrolyte. The monochromatic incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of these sensitizers is above 80%, and D11-sensitized solar cells yield a short-circuit photocurrent density of 13.90 +/- 0.2 mA/cm(2), an open-circuit voltage of 740 +/- 10 mV, and a fill factor of 0.70 +/- 0.02, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of 7.20% under standard AM 1.5 sun light. Detailed investigations of these sensitizers reveal that the long electron lifetime is responsible for differences in observed open-circuit potential of the cell. As an alternative to liquid electrolyte cells, a solid-state organic hole transporter is used in combination with the D9 sensitizer, which exhibited an efficiency of 3.25%. Density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory calculations have been employed to gain insight into the electronic structure and excited states of the investigated species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACS, 2008
Keyword
nanocrystalline tio2, electron-injection, recombination, semiconductor, chromophores, conductor, energies, dynamics, acceptor, model
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-10534 (URN)10.1021/ja800066y (DOI)000255620200032 ()2-s2.0-43249114905 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100716Available from: 2009-05-25 Created: 2009-05-25 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved

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