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Chloride deposition and distribution in soils along a deiced highway: assessment using different methods of measurement
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
2007 (English)In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 182, no 1-4, 173-185 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A comparison was made of the ability of three different methods to describe the deposition and distribution of chloride from deicing salt in the roadside environment along a highway: direct sampling of airborne deposition (including snow ploughing) in containers; soil sampling and analysis of chloride content in the topsoil; and direct current resistivity measurements. Each method showed a distribution with significant decreasing values with increasing distance from the road. Two transport mechanisms, splash and spray, were identified when describing the airborne deposition. A mathematical model that includes these two transport mechanisms was adopted, and the total amount of airborne deposition on the ground 0-100 m from the road was estimated to approximately 45% of the salt applied on the road. The main part of the chloride spread by air and ploughing ended up within 10 m from the road. The soil sampling and resistivity measurements also showed the highest impact within this distance. The variation in chloride content in the soils reflected a poorer drainage ability of fine-grained soils compared to more coarse-grained soils. The resistivity measurements represented an integrated value of the differences in geology, water content and salinity. The increase in resistivity with distance from road in the topsoil was interpreted to reflect the distribution of chloride from deicing salt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 182, no 1-4, 173-185 p.
Keyword [en]
deicing salt, monitoring, deposition, resistivity, soil content, roadside environment
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7920DOI: 10.1007/s11270-006-9330-8ISI: 000246360400016Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-34248329919OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7920DiVA: diva2:13094
Note
QC 20100526Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2011-11-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Monitoring transport and fate of de-icing salt in the roadside environment: Modelling and field measurements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring transport and fate of de-icing salt in the roadside environment: Modelling and field measurements
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Roads and traffic are a major non-point source of pollutants and may have severe impacts on surface water, groundwater, soil and vegetation. In cold climates, de-icing salt is one such pollutant that may cause increased chloride concentrations and induce other effects on the environment. Monitoring and quantifying environmental effects are crucial for governing decisions towards more suitable use of de-icing salt in order to achieve and maintain good environmental status around roads. This thesis presents an operational modelling tool for monitoring the transport and fate of de-icing salt in the roadside environment in order to quantify changes in the environment at various spatial and temporal scales, using salt application data, meteorological data, geology and generic descriptions of hydrogeological environments as main inputs. A combination of modelling and various independent field measurements provided an efficient means for evaluating and describing the spread of de-icing salt from the road to the surroundings, the deposition of salt and ploughed snow in the roadside, and the corresponding increase in chloride concentration in soil and groundwater. Both the spatial and seasonal variation in soil chloride concentration were significantly affected by de-icing salt application. The importance of type of soil, vegetation type, groundwater conditions and distance from the road was clearly demonstrated for modelling the transport and fate of de-icing salt in the roadside environment. Salt emissions from the road by surface runoff were estimated at 50-80% of applied salt and transport by snow ploughing and air emissions at 20-50%. The uncertainty in the spatial distribution of snow and salt deposition close to the road was high and a previous proposed exponential decline in salt deposition with distance from the road could not be justified within a couple of metres from the road. Future monitoring should include both modelling and systematic data collection in order to reduce the uncertainty in predictions of the environmental impact of de-icing salt. Modelling of chloride concentration, soil water content and soil temperature and measurements of electrical resistivity may be a cost-effective solution for quantifying changes in the roadside environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. xii, 32 p.
Series
Trita-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 1038
Keyword
Chloride, De-icing salt, Groundwater, Modelling, Monitoring, Road, Roadside, Soil water
National Category
Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4615 (URN)978-91-7178-861-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-02-15, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100526Available from: 2008-01-28 Created: 2008-01-28 Last updated: 2011-11-25Bibliographically approved

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