International Private and Public Reinforcing Dependencies for the Innovation of Automotive Emission Control Systems in Japan and USA
2004 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
In the beginning of the 1970s, the economies of USA and Japan were growing fast. The larger, sprawling cities had suffered from pollution and congestion for some years. A number of distinctive environmental incidents and growing evidence of the negative effects of air pollution caused the respective governments to act in order to limit pollution. As passenger car emissions were found to be significant and rapidly increasing, their reduction was specially targeted. Initial steps had been taken in the 1960s, but air quality problems and increasing vehicle fleets populating the cities called for substantially reduced emissions. Investigations and entrenched political discussions resulted in requirements for the vehicle manufacturers to reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) with 90 % until 1975, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with 90 % by 1976. These requirements were first presented in USA and soon adapted to fit in the Japanese regulatory framework, known in both countries as the "Muskie Act" or "Muskie Law" after the senator who developed the bill passed by US Congress in 1968.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7963OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7963DiVA: diva2:13154
IPSI-2004 (University of Belgrade) Conference, Montenegro, 2004
QC 201006242008-02-082008-02-082010-07-15Bibliographically approved