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Towards a sustainable automotive industry: experiences from the development of emission control systems
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Dynamics.
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

From the mid-1970s and on, the contribution to air pollution of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from gasoline passenger cars in the developed world has been reduced through co-evolution of regulation and commercial introduction of catalytic emission control technology, now part of hundreds of millions of cars, trucks and buses worldwide.

This dissertation is a disaggregated study of the global introduction of catalytic emission control technology as a measure to reduce local air pollution. The introduction of the “three-way” catalyst for gasoline passenger cars is studied for four countries. Present innovation in diesel engine emission control is studied. Technological change is analyzed regarding the process of innovation, the innovation system and its stakeholders. Results are evaluated for implications for innovation and regulatory policy for coming environmental challenges.

Automotive catalysis is an example of environmentally motivated innovation, including problem definition, public regulation, corporate market and non-market strategies, invention, variety, selection, technology transfer, mass diffusion and the ongoing coevolution of emission-abating policies and technical development.

Common denominators for successful technological or market innovations is a participatory dialogue around structured and tiered regulatory roadmaps, international competition, support by international networks and conducive local public opinion. The near-global introduction of the three-way catalyst was complex and highly dependent on local context and conditions, suggesting that any general “global” innovation and regulation strategy to address present and future local or global problems must be reviewed with an understanding of local barriers and drivers for environmentally motivated innovation.

Given the stakeholders and technical challenges of different technological regimes to mitigate climate change, it is concluded that increased fuel efficiency and the introduction of plug-in hybrids are possible trajectories for sustainable mobility.

Abstract [sv]

Sedan mitten av 1970-talet har utsläppen av kolmonoxid, kolväten och kväveoxider från bensindrivna personbilar reducerats genom samordnad utveckling av lagstiftning och kommersiell introduktion av katalytisk avgasrening, som nu är en del av hundratals miljoner bilar, lastbilar och bussar över hela jorden.

Denna avhandling är en disaggregerad studie av den i det närmaste globala introduktionen av katalytisk avgasrening för fordon, som åtgärd för att minska lokala luftföroreningar. Introduktionen av ”trevägskatalysatorn” för bensinbilar studeras i fyra länder. Pågående innovation för dieselavgasrening studeras. Teknisk förändring analyseras med avseende på innovationsprocessen, innovationssystemet och dess respektive intressenter. Resultaten används för att analysera konsekvenser för styrmedel för att åtgärda miljöproblem i vardande.

Fordonskatalys är ett exempel på en miljömotiverad innovation, inklusive problemdefinition, lagkrav, företagens marknadsstrategier och marknadspåverkan, innovation, utbud och urval, tekniköverföring, storskalig spridning samt den fortlöpande ömsesidiga utvecklingen av teknik och policy för att reducera emissioner.

Gemensamma nämnare för exempel på lyckosamma introduktionsprocesser är en inkluderande dialog kring etappvisa lagkrav, internationell konkurrens, stöd och samarbete i internationella nätverk samt en tydlig opinion för förändring. Introduktionen av trevägskatalysatorn var och är komplex och beroende av lokal kontext och regionala villkor. Kommande ”globala” teknikförändringar måste utvecklas med en förståelse för varje enskild nation eller marknad och dess specifika barriärer och drivkrafter för miljömotiverad innovation. Givet intressenter och tekniska utmaningar i olika teknologiska regimer med potential att reducera klimatförändringar är ökad bränsleeffektivisering och introduktion av s.k. plug-in-hybrider möjliga utvecklingsvägar för hållbar mobilitet.

Abstract [es]

Desde los años 70 y adelante, la contribución a la polución atmosférica de emisiones de monóxido de carbono, hidrocarburos y óxidos de nitrógeno proveniente de la combustión de los autos a gasolina, ha sido mitigado, por co-evolución entre regulación e introducción comercial de sistemas catalíticos de control de emisiones. Esos sistemas ahora forman parte de cientos de millones de autos, camiones y buses en todo el mundo.

La presente tesis es un estudio desagregado de la introducción cerca de global de sistemas de control de emisiones catalíticos, como medida para reducir la contaminación atmosférica local. Se examina el proceso de introducción del convertidor catalítico “de tres vías” para autos a gasolina en cuatro países. Se estudia la innovación presente en el área de sistemas de control de emisiones de motores diesel. El cambio tecnológico es analizado viendo el proceso y el sistema de innovación y los distintos grupos de interés. Los resultados se usan para analizar las implicaciones en cuanto a innovación y política de regulación para enfrentar los desafíos medioambientales actuales.

Catálisis automotriz es un ejemplo de innovación motivado ambientalmente, incluyendo definición del problema, regulación pública, estratégicas corporativas dentro y fuera de mercado, variedad, selección, transferencia de tecnología, difusión masiva y la coevolución continuo entre política de reducción de emisiones y desarrollo tecnológico.

Denominaciones comunes para innovaciones exitosas, tecnológicas o de mercado, son un diálogo dinámico sobre planes de regulación estructurados en etapas, competición internacional, apoyo y coordinación de redes internacionales, y opinión local beneficiario. La introducción global del catalizador de tres vías fue compleja y altamente relacionada con el contexto local y condiciones locales, sugiriendo que estrategias “globales” de innovación y regulación para tratar los desafíos de hoy y mañana deben ser diseñados con entendimiento de factores locales a favor y en contra para innovación ambientalmente motivado.

Dado los grupos de interés, los desafíos tecnológicos y las trayectorias presentes en el área de mitigación del cambio climático, se concluye que el aumento de uso eficiente de combustible y la introducción de vehículos híbridos enchufables (plug- in) son alternativas viables para el transporte sustentable.

Abstract [ja]

(japanese)

1970年代の中頃から今日に至るまで,先進国においては,自動車触媒技術の導入と規制との相互作用によって、ガソリン乗用車から排出される一酸化炭素CO,炭化水素HC,窒素酸化物NOxによる大気汚染への寄与率は減少している。現在では、この自動車触媒はディーゼル乗用車、トラックやバスなどを含めて何億台もの自動車で使われている。

この論文は,各地域での大気汚染を解決する手段としての触媒の地球規模での導入に関する調査研究である。ガソリン乗用車への三元触媒導入の過程を4か国比較で行うと共に,現在取り組まれているディーゼル機関の排出ガス制御についても研究した。これらの例の技術革新について、その内容を、技術革新に係る利害関係者(ステークスホルダー)の観点から技術の変革について分析した。これらの結果から,将来の環境問題に対応するためのイノベーションと規制に関する政策への示唆を行なった。

自動車用触媒は,問題定義,規制,市場原理に基づくないしは市場原理に基づかない戦略,開発,多様性,選択,技術移転,技術普及,そして今もなお進化する排出ガス削減に関する規制(政策)と技術開発との相乗効果,等々を含んだ「環境保護に起因する技術革新」の良い例である。

技術革新、および普及の成功例に共通していることは,

1. 構造的かつ段階的な「目標へのロードマップ」を巡る相方向の会話,

2. 国際競争力,

3. 国際的ネットワークによるサポート,

4. 地域社会に支持された意見,

等が挙げられる。

三元触媒の導入はほぼ全世界に及ぶが,その過程は複雑で、地域(国)の事情に強く依存する。つまり、現在または未来の、各国(地域的)または地球規模の問題に焦点を当てた「世界的」技術革新や規制戦略は、地域よって異なる障害の存在や、環境保護の視点に立った技術革新を推進する潜在力への理解なしには成り立たないことを意味するのである。

気候変動を緩和するための様々な技術体系からの技術的挑戦および関係者(ステークスホルダー)の意見を考慮すると,燃費向上とプラグイン・ハイブリッドの導入が,交通部門における持続可能な発展への道のりであると言える。

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2007. , x, 76 p.
Series
Trita-IEO, ISSN 1100-7982 ; R 2007:10
Keyword [en]
evolutionary economics, environmental innovation, trajectories, co-evolution
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4630ISBN: 978-91-7178-840-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4630DiVA: diva2:13159
Public defence
2008-01-25, F3, Lindstedts väg 26, STOCKHOLM, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100517Available from: 2008-02-08 Created: 2008-02-08 Last updated: 2010-06-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Kappa/Cover essay: Towards a sustainable automotive industry: experiences from thedevelopment of emission control systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kappa/Cover essay: Towards a sustainable automotive industry: experiences from thedevelopment of emission control systems
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7962 (URN)
Note
QC 20100517Available from: 2008-02-08 Created: 2008-02-08 Last updated: 2010-06-24Bibliographically approved
2. International Private and Public Reinforcing Dependencies for the Innovation of Automotive Emission Control Systems in Japan and USA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International Private and Public Reinforcing Dependencies for the Innovation of Automotive Emission Control Systems in Japan and USA
2004 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In the beginning of the 1970s, the economies of USA and Japan were growing fast. The larger, sprawling cities had suffered from pollution and congestion for some years. A number of distinctive environmental incidents and growing evidence of the negative effects of air pollution caused the respective governments to act   in  order   to   limit  pollution.  As  passenger   car  emissions  were   found   to  be   significant  and   rapidly increasing, their reduction was specially targeted. Initial steps had been taken in the 1960s, but air quality problems  and   increasing  vehicle   fleets  populating   the  cities  called   for  substantially   reduced  emissions. Investigations and entrenched political discussions resulted in requirements for the vehicle manufacturers to reduce the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) with 90 % until 1975, and nitrogen oxides (NOx) with 90 % by 1976.  These requirements were first presented in USA and soon adapted to fit in the Japanese regulatory framework, known in both countries as the "Muskie Act" or "Muskie Law" after the senator who developed the bill passed by US Congress in 1968.

National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7963 (URN)
Conference
IPSI-2004 (University of Belgrade) Conference, Montenegro, 2004
Note
QC 20100624Available from: 2008-02-08 Created: 2008-02-08 Last updated: 2010-07-15Bibliographically approved
3. Global innovation vs. local regulation: introduction of automotive emission control in Sweden and Europe
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global innovation vs. local regulation: introduction of automotive emission control in Sweden and Europe
2007 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, ISSN 1466-2132, Vol. 7, no 1/2, 244-272 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing effects of pollution in larger cities in Europe in the 1960s spurred investigations into the sources of pollution and the means for its reduction. One important source of pollution was found to be the increasing fleet of passenger cars. In difference to a common description like "strict vehicle emission regulations were established in EU and EFTA countries in 1995", this paper shows the mosaic of arguments and technical capabilities resulting in a staged development, in stark contrast to an in theory unanimous desire to reduce air pollution in Europe. It shows that multiple agendas of equal proportion reduction of oil consumption, improving air quality and sustaining regional or national industrial sectors may slow or halt regulations that were successfully introduced elsewhere.

Keyword
vehicle emissions, emission control, pollution reduction, three-way catalyst, environmental technology, innovation, local regulations, air pollution, Sweden, Europe, oil consumption, policy, automobile industry
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7964 (URN)10.1504/IJETM.2007.013248 (DOI)2-s2.0-34249815517 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100518Available from: 2008-02-08 Created: 2008-02-08 Last updated: 2010-06-24Bibliographically approved
4. Entrepreneurship in a Routinized Regime: Catalytic Suppliers in Environmental Product Innovation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Entrepreneurship in a Routinized Regime: Catalytic Suppliers in Environmental Product Innovation
(English)In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7965 (URN)
Note
QC 20100518. An early version in Swedish of the main case study was published as a section of D.Bauner & S.Laestadius; Nya emissionskrav för dieselmotorer- en katalysator för svensk industri? Vinnova Rapport VR 2005:09, VINNOVA (2005).Available from: 2008-02-08 Created: 2008-02-08 Last updated: 2010-06-24Bibliographically approved
5. The Introduction of the Automotive Catalytic Converter in Chile
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Introduction of the Automotive Catalytic Converter in Chile
2003 (English)In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, Vol. 37, no 2, 157-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The regional Special Commission for Decontamination of Chile's capital, Santiago, was formed in 1990. The issue of regulating passenger car emissions was one of the first initiatives on the commission's agenda, empowering a group of consultants and administrators to set up a structure for the transition in legal, economic, and commercial terms. In April 1992 the first car with a catalytic converter was sold as unleaded petrol became available, and from 1 September the same year a decree required every new car in the capital regions to be equipped with a catalytic converter. Chile thus introduced the automotive catalytic converter in little more than a year. It is argued that the critical factors for this process were the effective and efficient adoption and adaptation of foreign technology, policy, and market space, Chile's common understanding of the need to reduce emissions, and prevalent strong economic growth permitting widespread car ownership and renewal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bath: UNIV BATH, JRNL OF TRANSPORT ECON & POL CLAVERTON DOWN, 2003
Keyword
Economics; Transportation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7966 (URN)000222697800002 ()
Note
QC 20100518Available from: 2008-02-08 Created: 2008-02-08 Last updated: 2012-01-29Bibliographically approved
6. Evolving Technological Systems for Diesel Engine Emission Control: Balancing GHG and Local Emissions,
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolving Technological Systems for Diesel Engine Emission Control: Balancing GHG and Local Emissions,
2009 (English)In: Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, ISSN 1618-954X, E-ISSN 1618-9558, Vol. 11, no 3, 339-365 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Triad-North America, Japan and Europe-now addresses diesel vehicle emissions by requiring 40-80% reductions from new heavy-duty trucks and passenger car diesels. The requirements imply introduction of new technology and fuels stepwise during 2005-2012 that will leave emissions from new diesel vehicles on par with the levels of gasoline passenger cars. This paper studies the recent development of diesel engine emission control in response to new regulation. The role for Swedish actors, including two of the world's major truck manufacturers, is especially studied. The increasingly global Technological System for diesel engine emission control is compelled to manage further reductions of nitrogen oxides emissions and fuel consumption and CO2, the balance of which has been the subject of several large legal disputes. Swedish OEMs are at present split into two technological sub-trajectories, while the future may be multi-pronged and include new engine types and fuels. Interestingly, similar commercial advantages that were sought by the pioneers introducing advanced feedback loop catalysis in gasoline cars in the 1970s are now sought by some heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers by conversely avoiding the mainstream-Selective catalytic reduction-solution. Incremental innovation is the new radical.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2009
Keyword
Engineering, Environmental; Environmental Sciences
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7967 (URN)10.1007/s10098-008-0151-x (DOI)000269530000012 ()2-s2.0-70350034184 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100518. A first version of this paper was presented as a report, D.Bauner & S.Laestadius; Nya emissionskrav för dieselmotorer- en katalysator för svensk industri? Vinnova Rapport VR 2005:09, VINNOVA (2005). The paper is a shortened, translated and updated version of the report.

Available from: 2008-02-08 Created: 2008-02-08 Last updated: 2016-06-22Bibliographically approved

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