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An NbTiN superconducting single photon detector implemented on a LiNbO3 nano-waveguide at telecom wavelength
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics. (Quantum Nano Photonics)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1831-2208
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics. (Quantum Nano Photonics)
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics. (Quantum Nano Photonics)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7004-9665
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2019 (English)In: Poster session T.Po2, 2019Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Fiber-coupled superconducting nanowire single photon detectors are a ubiquitous tool for quantum optics experiments as they offer near unity detection efficiency over a broad wavelength range, low dark count rate, excellent time resolution and high saturation rate. Nevertheless, advancing quantum optics experiments and applications beyond the few-photon limit requires large scale integrated systems of quantum sources and detectors. In recent years there has been a tremendous progress with integrating single photon detectors with a variety of photonic platforms. This includes attempts on ion-diffused waveguides in LiNbO3, a non-linear and electro-optic material with widespread use for signal processing, frequency conversion, and quantum optics devices. However the realization of superconducting detectors on single mode waveguides remains elusive. Here we present an NbTiN superconducting single photon detector integrated directly on a LiNbO3 single mode nanophotonic waveguide at telecom wavelength, with a high critical current density and a dark count rate of 3 mHz at 99% of its critical current.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019.
Keywords [en]
SNSPD, lithium niobate
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251754OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-251754DiVA, id: diva2:1316879
Conference
ECIO Conference in Ghent 2019
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 875994EU, European Research Council, ERC-2012-StGSwedish Research Council, 2013-7152Swedish Research Council, 2018-04487Swedish Research Council, 2016-03905
Note

QC 20190523

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. NbTiN for improved superconducting detectors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>NbTiN for improved superconducting detectors
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The physics of single photons is fascinating, by manipulating them we can observe and probe quantum effects. Doing so requires the fabrication and utilization of single photon sources, of which many types have been developed including quantum dots, trapped atoms and ions, and color centers. On the other end of the experiments, single photon detectors play a role of utmost importance, and while several types of detectors exist, superconducting nanowire single photon detectors are now the state-of-the-art technology. By offering near unity detection efficiency from the ultra-violet to the mid-infrared light spectrum, with negligible noise and excellent time resolution, they made possible many experiments that were previously technologically unfeasible. The same appealing characteristics have found a use in applications outside of the quantum optics framework, with notably light detection and ranging, biomedical imaging or CMOS circuits testing.In this thesis a controlled growth method for tailoring the characteristics of niobium titanium nitride in the framework of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors was developed. Reactive co-sputter deposition of niobium titanium nitride was shown to be a versatile method, both in terms of the degree of control over the material composition, and in the choice of substrates that it allows. Unity internal detection efficiency of detectors at telecom wavelengths was achieved by optimizing the niobium content in the material. The influence of lattice matching on the critical temperatures of films deposited at room temperature was investigated. The fabrication of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors on aluminum nitride-on-sapphire, on lithium niobate nano-waveguides, on gallium arsenide, and the integration on SiN waveguides was achieved. The material was used to fabricate detectors with optimized response for any linear polarization of the incoming photons by using a fractal architecture. Another method was proposed to achieve the same results by encapsulating meandering detectors in a high index dielectric material, resulting in a decrease of the permittivity mismatch between the nanowire material and its surrounding and therefore optimizing the efficiency for both orthogonal linear polarizations.Finally, detectors were fabricated from films developed in this work, and were operated to enable the implementation of polarization-based entanglement distribution in optical fibers in a real-conditions scenario, over a record distance of 96 km. This paves the way for the development of quantum communication networks using existing optical fiber links.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. iii-xviii, 66
Series
TRITA-SCI-GRU ; 2019:34
Keywords
superconducting nanowire sngle photon detector, SNSPD, niobium titanium nitride, NbTiN, reactive co-sputtering, quantum communications, quantum sensing
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251759 (URN)978-91-7873-192-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-14, FB42, Roslagstullbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 307687Swedish Research Council, 638-2013-7152
Note

QC 20190521

Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-05-21 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved

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