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Nanoscale imaging of domains and domain walls in periodically poled ferroelectrics using atomic force microscopy
KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2070-9167
KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
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2002 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 80, no 9, 1622-1624 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use the inverse piezoelectric effect for high-resolution imaging of artificially produced ferroelectric domains in periodically poled potassium titanium phosphate, KTiOPO4, and lithium niobate, LiNbO3, crystals using a modified atomic force microscope (AFM). By monitoring the vertical as well as the lateral deflection of the AFM tip, details of the domains and the domain walls were obtained at 1 nm resolution. With this approach we determine the domain wall width to be 20-80 nm for KTiOPO4 and about 150 nm for LiNbO3. The above technique is of importance in tailoring ferroelectric crystals for frequency conversion of lasers and studies of domain walls in ferroelectric and its magnetic analogs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2002. Vol. 80, no 9, 1622-1624 p.
Keyword [en]
NONLINEAR DIELECTRIC MICROSCOPY, WAVE-GUIDE, FIELD, FATIGUE, KTIOPO4, LINBO3, FILMS
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7990DOI: 10.1063/1.1455700ISI: 000174181400040OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-7990DiVA: diva2:13191
Note
QC 20100930. Tidigare titel: Nanoscale characterisation of domains in periodically poled ferroelectricsAvailable from: 2005-10-25 Created: 2005-10-25 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Domain engineering in KTiOPO4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domain engineering in KTiOPO4
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Ferroelectric crystals are commonly used in nonlinear optics for frequency conversion of laser radiation. The quasi-phase matching (QPM) approach uses a periodically modulated nonlinearity that can be achieved by periodically inverting domains in ferroelectric crystals and allows versatile and efficient frequency conversion in the whole transparency region of the material.

KTiOPO4 (KTP) is one of the most attractive ferroelectric non-linear optical material for periodic domain-inversion engineering due to its excellent non-linearity, high resistance for photorefractive damage, and its relatively low coercive field. A periodic structure of reversed domains can be created in the crystal by lithographic patterning with subsequent electric field poling. The performance of the periodically poled KTP crystals (PPKTP) as frequency converters rely directly upon the poling quality. Therefore, characterization methods that lead to a deeper understanding of the polarization switching process are of utmost importance.

In this work, several techniques have been used and developed to study domain structure in KTP, both in-situ and ex-situ. The results obtained have been utilized to characterize different aspects of the polarization switching processes in KTP, both for patterned and unpatterned samples.

It has also been demonstrated that it is possible to fabricate sub-micrometer (sub-μm) PPKTP for novel optical devices. Lithographic processes based on e-beam lithography and deep UV-laser lithography have been developed and proven useful to pattern sub- μm pitches, where the later has been the most convenient method. A poling method based on a periodical modulation of the K-stoichiometry has been developed, and it has resulted in a sub-μm domain grating with a period of 720 nm for a 1 mm thick KTP crystal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest domain aspect-ratio achieved for a bulk ferroelectric crystal. The sub-micrometer PPKTP samples have been used for demonstration of 6:th and 7:th QPM order backward second-harmonic generation with continuous wave laser excitation, as well as a demonstration of narrow wavelength electrically-adjustable Bragg reflectivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. 108 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2005:49
Keyword
quasi-phase matching, KTiOPO4, ferroelectric domains, atomic force microscopy, periodic electric field poling, polarization switching, second harmonic generation
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-464 (URN)91-7178-152-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2005-10-28, sal FA32, AlbaNova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100930Available from: 2005-10-25 Created: 2005-10-25 Last updated: 2010-09-30Bibliographically approved

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Canalias, CarlotaLaurell, Fredrik

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