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Domain engineering in KTiOPO4
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2070-9167
2005 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Ferroelectric crystals are commonly used in nonlinear optics for frequency conversion of laser radiation. The quasi-phase matching (QPM) approach uses a periodically modulated nonlinearity that can be achieved by periodically inverting domains in ferroelectric crystals and allows versatile and efficient frequency conversion in the whole transparency region of the material.

KTiOPO4 (KTP) is one of the most attractive ferroelectric non-linear optical material for periodic domain-inversion engineering due to its excellent non-linearity, high resistance for photorefractive damage, and its relatively low coercive field. A periodic structure of reversed domains can be created in the crystal by lithographic patterning with subsequent electric field poling. The performance of the periodically poled KTP crystals (PPKTP) as frequency converters rely directly upon the poling quality. Therefore, characterization methods that lead to a deeper understanding of the polarization switching process are of utmost importance.

In this work, several techniques have been used and developed to study domain structure in KTP, both in-situ and ex-situ. The results obtained have been utilized to characterize different aspects of the polarization switching processes in KTP, both for patterned and unpatterned samples.

It has also been demonstrated that it is possible to fabricate sub-micrometer (sub-μm) PPKTP for novel optical devices. Lithographic processes based on e-beam lithography and deep UV-laser lithography have been developed and proven useful to pattern sub- μm pitches, where the later has been the most convenient method. A poling method based on a periodical modulation of the K-stoichiometry has been developed, and it has resulted in a sub-μm domain grating with a period of 720 nm for a 1 mm thick KTP crystal. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest domain aspect-ratio achieved for a bulk ferroelectric crystal. The sub-micrometer PPKTP samples have been used for demonstration of 6:th and 7:th QPM order backward second-harmonic generation with continuous wave laser excitation, as well as a demonstration of narrow wavelength electrically-adjustable Bragg reflectivity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , 108 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2005:49
Keyword [en]
quasi-phase matching, KTiOPO4, ferroelectric domains, atomic force microscopy, periodic electric field poling, polarization switching, second harmonic generation
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-464ISBN: 91-7178-152-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-464DiVA: diva2:13198
Public defence
2005-10-28, sal FA32, AlbaNova, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100930Available from: 2005-10-25 Created: 2005-10-25 Last updated: 2010-09-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Nanoscale imaging of domains and domain walls in periodically poled ferroelectrics using atomic force microscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanoscale imaging of domains and domain walls in periodically poled ferroelectrics using atomic force microscopy
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2002 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 80, no 9, 1622-1624 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use the inverse piezoelectric effect for high-resolution imaging of artificially produced ferroelectric domains in periodically poled potassium titanium phosphate, KTiOPO4, and lithium niobate, LiNbO3, crystals using a modified atomic force microscope (AFM). By monitoring the vertical as well as the lateral deflection of the AFM tip, details of the domains and the domain walls were obtained at 1 nm resolution. With this approach we determine the domain wall width to be 20-80 nm for KTiOPO4 and about 150 nm for LiNbO3. The above technique is of importance in tailoring ferroelectric crystals for frequency conversion of lasers and studies of domain walls in ferroelectric and its magnetic analogs.

Keyword
NONLINEAR DIELECTRIC MICROSCOPY, WAVE-GUIDE, FIELD, FATIGUE, KTIOPO4, LINBO3, FILMS
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7990 (URN)10.1063/1.1455700 (DOI)000174181400040 ()
Note
QC 20100930. Tidigare titel: Nanoscale characterisation of domains in periodically poled ferroelectricsAvailable from: 2005-10-25 Created: 2005-10-25 Last updated: 2015-03-30Bibliographically approved
2. High-resolution domain imaging on the nonpolar y-face of periodically poled KTiOPO4 by means of atomic force microscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-resolution domain imaging on the nonpolar y-face of periodically poled KTiOPO4 by means of atomic force microscopy
2003 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 4, 734-736 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The inverse piezoelectric effect is used to produce high-resolution images of ferroelectric domains in periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystals on their nonpolar y-face using atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that the technique is convenient for studying the nucleation and growth of domains in a periodically poled KTiOPO4 sample.

Keyword
ferroelectric domains, walls
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-22692 (URN)10.1063/1.1593834 (DOI)000184336600048 ()
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-10 Created: 2010-08-10 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
3. Polarization switching characteristics of flux grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Polarization switching characteristics of flux grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature
2005 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 97, no 12, 124105- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A study of polarization-switching characteristics under an applied electrical field at room temperature is presented for flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4. By optimizing the experimental conditions, we determined the coercive field and the domain-switching time quantitatively by direct observation of the switching current. For both isomorphs, the inverse of the polarization-switching time, 1/t(s), follows an exponential dependence on the applied field E in low-field regime, and a linear dependence on E in the high-field regime. Domain morphology of KTiOPO4 based on selective etching reveals laminar structures elongated in the b crystallographic direction. An estimation of the domain-wall velocity shows that the domain speed in the polar direction is, at least, two orders of magnitude larger than in the a-b plane. The velocity along the b direction is similar to 30 times larger than along the a axis.

Keyword
electrooptic imaging microscopy, potassium titanyl phosphate, periodically poled ktiopo4, lithium tantalite, ionic-conductivity, internal field, electric-field, blue-light, ferroelectric domains, single-crystals
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7992 (URN)10.1063/1.1940135 (DOI)000230278100083 ()2-s2.0-21644435070 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100830Available from: 2005-10-25 Created: 2005-10-25 Last updated: 2015-03-30Bibliographically approved
4. In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography
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2007 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 6, 064105- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fast dynamic evolution of ferroelectric domains during electric field poling in flux grown KTiOPO4 crystals was investigated online by a digital holography based technique. The dependence of the ferroelectric domain kinetics on the electric field temporal wave form and poling history was studied. High-speed imaging by means of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor image sensor camera allowed in situ measurement of the domain wall propagation speed under different poling conditions. The results also give evidence of the strong influence of the dielectric surface layer in this material.

Keyword
Ferroelectric Domains; Resolution; Field; Generation; Microscopy; Reversal
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7993 (URN)10.1063/1.2781567 (DOI)000249787200085 ()2-s2.0-34848867821 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100824Available from: 2005-10-25 Created: 2005-10-25 Last updated: 2015-03-30Bibliographically approved
5. Nucleation and growth of periodic domains during electric field poling in flux-grown KTiOPO4 observed by atomic force microscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nucleation and growth of periodic domains during electric field poling in flux-grown KTiOPO4 observed by atomic force microscopy
2006 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 88, no 3, 032905-1-032905-3 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The domain structure of periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystals were studied on both the polar and nonpolar faces utilizing a voltage-modulated atomic force microscope. The measurements give information of domain nucleation, growth, and merging. Two different kind of overpoling behaviors have been observed depending on the magnitude of the applied field.

Keyword
Atomic force microscopy, Crystals, Electric fields, Magnetic flux, Nucleation, Time varying systems, Electric field poling, Periodic domains
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8758 (URN)10.1063/1.2166678 (DOI)000234757100049 ()2-s2.0-31144438683 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100930. Uppdaterad från submitted till published (20100930).Available from: 2005-11-09 Created: 2005-11-09 Last updated: 2015-03-30Bibliographically approved
6. Submicron periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Submicron periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4
2003 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, no 24, 4233-4235 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A submicron domain grating has been created in a bulk ferroelectric. Electron-beam lithography and electric-field poling were used to fabricate the 800 nm period grating in a 0.5-mm-thick flux-grown KTiOPO4 sample. The domain structure was characterized with an atomic force microscope and was used to demonstrate electrically amplitude adjustable Bragg reflections.

Keyword
2ND-HARMONIC GENERATION, FERROELECTRIC DOMAINS, LIGHT
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-7995 (URN)10.1063/1.1583144 (DOI)000183467500007 ()
Note
QC 20100930Available from: 2005-10-25 Created: 2005-10-25 Last updated: 2015-03-30Bibliographically approved
7. Backward quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in submicrometer periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Backward quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in submicrometer periodically poled flux-grown KTiOPO4
2005 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 86, no 18, 181105-1-181105-3 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A 1 turn thick flux-grown KTiOPO4 sample was poled with a 720 nm domain period by employing deep-UV laser lithography, chemical patterning, and electric field poling. An atomic force microscope was used to characterize the periodic domain structure. The sample was used to demonstrate sixth and seventh order quasi-phase-matched backward second-harmonic generation.

Keyword
lithium-niobate, wave-guide, configuration, crystals, reversal
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-14768 (URN)10.1063/1.1921360 (DOI)000229288700005 ()2-s2.0-20844456231 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100525Available from: 2010-08-05 Created: 2010-08-05 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved

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