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Epitaxial growth optimization for 1.3-um InGaAs/GaAs Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting lasers
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
2008 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Long-wavelength (1.3-μm) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are of great interest as low-cost, high performance light sources for fiber-optic metro and access networks. During recent years the main development effort in this field has been directed towards all epitaxial GaAs-based structures by employing novel active materials. Different active region candidates for GaAs-based 1.3-μm VCSELs such as GaInNAs/GaAs QWs, GaAsSb QWs or InAs/InGaAs QDs have been investigated. However, the difficult growth and materials properties of these systems have so far hampered any real deployment of the technology. More recently, a new variety of VCSELs have been developed at KTH as based on highly strained InGaAs QWs and negative gain cavity detuning to reach the 1.3-μm wavelength window. The great benefit of this approach is that it is fully compatible with standard materials and processing methods.

The aim of this thesis is to investigate long-wavelength (1.3-μm) VCSELs using ~1.2-μm In0.4GaAs/GaAs Multiple Quantum Wells (MQWs). A series of QW structures, DBR structures and laser structures, including VCSELs and Broad Area lasers (BALs) were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and characterized by various techniques: Photoluminescence (PL), high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high accuracy reflectance measurements as well as static and dynamic device characterization. The work can be divided into three parts. The first part is dedicated to the optimization and characterization of InGaAs/GaAs QWs growth for long wavelength and strong luminescence. A strong sensitivity to the detailed growth conditions, such as V/III ratio and substrate misorientation is noted. Dislocations in highly strained InGaAs QW structure and Sb as surfactant assisted in InGaAs QW growth are also discussed here. The second part is related to the AlGaAs/GaAs DBR structures. It is shown that the InGaAs VCSELs with doped bottom DBRs have significantly lower slope efficiency, output power and higher threshold current. By a direct study of buried AlGaAs/GaAs interfaces, this is suggested to be due to doping-enhanced Al-Ga hetero-interdiffusion. In the third part, singlemode, high-performance 1.3-μm VCSELs based on highly strained InGaAs QWs are demonstrated. Temperature stable singlemode performance, including mW-range output power and 10 Gbps data transmission, is obtained by an inverted surface relief technique.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2008. , 51 p.
Series
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2008:4
Keyword [en]
VCSEL MOVPE InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4648ISBN: 978-91-7178-866-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4648DiVA: diva2:13242
Presentation
2008-03-07, Sal N2, Electrum 3, Isafjordsgatan 28, Kista, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101126Available from: 2008-02-25 Created: 2008-02-25 Last updated: 2010-11-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. On the long-wavelength optimization of highly strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the long-wavelength optimization of highly strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy
2008 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 310, no 13, 3163-3167 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have investigated the influence of the metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy growth conditions on the long-wavelength optimization of InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs). It is found that the V/III ratio is a critical parameter for the in incorporation and wavelength extension, with a strong sensitivity even at very high values. Furthermore, it is noted that the exact crystallographic substrate surface orientation close to (001) may have a strong influence on the photoluminescence (PL) properties with a maximum PL wavelength for orientations within 0.01-0.03 degrees from (0 0 1). This is discussed in terms of changing interface morphology and growth modes with increasing misorientation. Finally, the application of antimony as surfactant is not found to have an improving effect on the layer integrity, whereas a slight extension of the emission wavelength indicates a small incorporation of antimony in the QWs.

Keyword
A1. Photoluminescence, A1. Substrates, A3. Metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy, A3. Quantum wells, B2. InGaAs
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8029 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2008.04.007 (DOI)000257353500007 ()2-s2.0-46549083875 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100924. Uppdaterad från Manuskript till Artikel (20100924). Tidigare Titel "On the long wavelength optimization of highly strained InGaAs/GaAs grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. Available from: 2008-02-25 Created: 2008-02-25 Last updated: 2014-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Optical loss and interface morphology in AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical loss and interface morphology in AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors
2007 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, no 10, 101101- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is shown that n-type doping of AlGaAs/GaAs distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy has a profound negative impact on the performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) based on such mirrors. Using an intracavity contact scheme, 1.3-mu m-range InGaAs VCSELs with and without doping in the bottom DBR are directly compared. Doped mirrors lead to lower slope efficiency, lower output power, and higher threshold current. From x-ray diffraction, high-accuracy reflectance measurements, and atomic force microscopy studies, it is suggested that this performance degradation is due to the doping-enhanced Al-Ga interdiffusion, leading to interface roughening and increased scattering loss.

Keyword
Metallorganic vapor phase epitaxy; Optical losses; Semiconducting aluminum compounds; Semiconductor doping; Surface emitting lasers; X ray diffraction; High-accuracy reflectance measurements; Interface morphology; Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs)
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8625 (URN)10.1063/1.2779242 (DOI)000249322900001 ()2-s2.0-34548480155 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2008-06-03 Created: 2008-06-03 Last updated: 2014-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. High speed, high temperature operation of 1.28-μm singlemode InGaAs VCSELs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High speed, high temperature operation of 1.28-μm singlemode InGaAs VCSELs
Show others...
2006 (English)In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 42, no 17, 978-979 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Singlemode 1.28 μm InGaAs VCSELs, with a higher-order mode suppression >30 dB in the temperature range 25-85°C, have been fabricated using an inverted surface relief technique for relaxed fabrication tolerances. High performance 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s modulation is demonstrated in the same temperature range.

Keyword
Fabrication, Phase modulation, Surface properties, Thermodynamic properties
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8031 (URN)10.1049/el:20062102 (DOI)000240675300019 ()2-s2.0-33747782140 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100916Available from: 2008-02-25 Created: 2008-02-25 Last updated: 2012-03-22Bibliographically approved

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