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Pulse reverse electroplating for uniform nickel height in zone plates
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2723-6622
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2745-6289
2006 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 24, 2848- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nickelsoft x-ray zone plates are fabricated by through-mask electroplating. Theauthors report on how a uniform nickel thickness can beobtained over the entire zone plate using pulse and pulsereverse plating. If the plating is carried out at aconstant current the nickel thickness has been observed to decreasewith radius. This results in lower outer zones and reduceddiffraction efficiency in the outer parts of the zone plates.Here they show that the height profile can be controlledby adjusting the current density of the pulses. A highcurrent density is found to primarily affect the edges whilea low current density was observed to affect the centralparts of the structures. This is true for both cathodicand anodic currents, which means that local plating and dissolutionrates can be adjusted to obtain a uniform mass distribution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 24, 2848- p.
Keyword [en]
x-ray microscopy; high-efficiency; electrodeposition; fabrication; deposition; resolution; copper; holes
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9804DOI: 10.1116/1.2395953ISI: 000243324400063Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-33845274933OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9804DiVA: diva2:133121
Note
QC 20100728 QC 20110929. Conference: 50th International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofavrication. Baltimore, MD. MAY 30-JUN 02, 2006 Available from: 2009-01-07 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Nanofabrication of Diffractive Soft X-ray Optics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanofabrication of Diffractive Soft X-ray Optics
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis summarizes the present status of the nanofabrication of diffractive optics, i.e. zone plates, and test objects for soft x-ray microscopy at KTH. The emphasis is on new and improved fabrication processes for nickel and germanium zone plates. A new concept in which nickel and germanium are combined in a zone plate is also presented. The main techniques used in the fabrication are electron beam lithography for the patterning, followed by plasma etching and electroplating for the structuring of the optical materials. The process for fabricating nickel zone plates has been significantly improved. The reproducibility of the electroplating step has been increased by the implementation of an in-situ rate measurement and an end-point detection method. We have also shown that pulse plating can be used to obtain zone plates with a uniform height profile. New plating mold materials have been introduced and electron-beam curing of the molds has been investigated and implemented to increase their mechanical stability so that pattern collapse in the electroplating step can be avoided. The introduction of cold development has improved the achievable resolution of the process. This has enabled the fabrication of zone plates with outermost zone widths down to 16 nm. The nickel process has also recently been adapted to fabrication of gold structures intended for test objects and hard x-ray zone plates. For the fabrication of germanium zone plates we developed a highly anisotropic plasma-etch process using Cl2 feed and sidewall passivation. Germanium zone plates have been fabricated with zone widths down to 30 nm. The diffraction efficiency is comparable to that of nickel zone plates, but the process does not involve electroplating and thus has for potential for highyield fabrication. The combination of nickel and germanium is a new fabrication concept that provides a means to achieve high diffraction efficiency even for thin nickel. The idea is to fabricate a nickel zone plate on a germanium film. The nickel zone plate itself is then used as etch mask for a highly selective CHF3- plasma etch into the germanium layer. Proof of principle experiments showed an efficiency increase of about a factor of two for nickel zone plates with a 50- nm nickel thickness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2009. vii, 71 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2008:57
Keyword
Nanofabrication, Zone plate, x-ray, diffractive x-ray optics, x-ray microscopy
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9800 (URN)978-91-7415-205-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-02-06, FR4, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100728Available from: 2009-01-13 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2011-10-20Bibliographically approved

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Hertz, Hans M.Holmberg, Anders

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