Pulse reverse electroplating for uniform nickel height in zone plates
2006 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 24, 2848- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Nickelsoft x-ray zone plates are fabricated by through-mask electroplating. Theauthors report on how a uniform nickel thickness can beobtained over the entire zone plate using pulse and pulsereverse plating. If the plating is carried out at aconstant current the nickel thickness has been observed to decreasewith radius. This results in lower outer zones and reduceddiffraction efficiency in the outer parts of the zone plates.Here they show that the height profile can be controlledby adjusting the current density of the pulses. A highcurrent density is found to primarily affect the edges whilea low current density was observed to affect the centralparts of the structures. This is true for both cathodicand anodic currents, which means that local plating and dissolutionrates can be adjusted to obtain a uniform mass distribution.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 24, 2848- p.
x-ray microscopy; high-efficiency; electrodeposition; fabrication; deposition; resolution; copper; holes
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9804DOI: 10.1116/1.2395953ISI: 000243324400063ScopusID: 2-s2.0-33845274933OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9804DiVA: diva2:133121
QC 20100728 QC 20110929. Conference: 50th International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofavrication. Baltimore, MD. MAY 30-JUN 02, 2006 2009-01-072009-01-072011-09-29Bibliographically approved