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Diagnostic mirrors for ITER: research in the frame of International Tokamak Physics Activity
Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energie & Klimaforsch Plasmaphys, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
NSC Kharkov Inst Phys & Technol, IPP, UA-61008 Kharkov, Ukraine..
ITER Org, Route Vinon Sur Verdon,CS 90 046, F-13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance, France..
ITER Org, Route Vinon Sur Verdon,CS 90 046, F-13067 Saint Paul Lez Durance, France..
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 6, article id 066029Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mirrors will be used as first plasma-viewing elements in optical and laser-based diagnostics in ITER. Deterioration of the mirror performance due to e.g. sputtering of the mirror surface by plasma particles or deposition of impurities will hamper the entire performance of the affected diagnostic and thus affect ITER operation. The Specialists Working Group on First Mirrors (FM SWG) in the Topical Group on Diagnostics of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) plays an important role in finding solutions for diagnostic first mirrors. Sound progress in research and development of diagnostic mirrors in ITER was achieved since the last overview in 2009. Single crystal (SC) rhodium (Rh) mirrors became available. SC rhodium and molybdenum (Mo) mirrors survived in conditions corresponding to similar to 200 cleaning cycles with a negligible degradation of reflectivity. These results are important for a mirror cleaning system which is presently under development. The cleaning system is based on sputtering of contaminants by plasma. Repetitive cleaning was tested on several mirror materials. Experiments comprised contamination/cleaning cycles. The reflectivity SC Mo and Rh mirrors has changed insignificantly after 80 cycles. First in situ cleaning using radiofrequency (RF) plasma was conducted in EAST tokamak with a mock-up plate of ITER edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) with five inserted mirrors. Contaminants from the mirrors were removed. Physics of cleaning discharge was studied both experimentally and by modeling. Mirror contamination can also be mitigated by protecting diagnostic ducts. A deposition mitigation (DeMi) duct system was exposed in KSTAR. The real-time measurement of deposition in the diagnostic duct was pioneered during this experiment. Results evidenced the dominating effect of the wall conditioning and baking on contamination inside the duct. A baffled cassette with mirrors was exposed at the main wall of JET for 23,6 plasma hours. No significant degradation of reflectivity was measured on mirrors located in the ducts. Predictive modeling was further advanced. A model for the particle transport, deposition and erosion at the port-plug was used in selecting an optical layout of several ITER diagnostics. These achievements contributed to the focusing of the first mirror research thus accelerating the diagnostic development. Modeling requires more efforts. Remaining crucial issues will be in a focus of the future work of the FM SWG.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2019. Vol. 59, no 6, article id 066029
Keywords [en]
ITER, diagnostic mirrors, in situ mirror cleaning, recovery of reflectivity, single crystal mirrors, mirror protection, ITPA
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-252366DOI: 10.1088/1741-4326/ab1446ISI: 000467461600008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85067584703OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-252366DiVA, id: diva2:1337966
Note

QC 20190718

Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2019-07-18Bibliographically approved

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Rubel, MarekMoon, Sunwoo

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