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Interface modeling - friction and wear
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4461-0209
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The general trend toward increased use of computer models and simulations during product development calls for accurate and reliable product models. The function of many products relies on contact interfaces between interacting components. Simulating the behavior of such products requires accurate models of both components and interfaces. Depending on the purpose of the simulation, interface models of different degrees of detail are needed. In simulating very large systems with many interfaces, it might be computationally expensive to integrate detailed models of each individual interface. Condensed models, or abstractions, that describe the interface properties with the fewest degrees of freedom are therefore required. This thesis deals with the modeling and simulation of mechanical interfaces in a systems context. The five appended papers discuss the issue from both the simulation and tribological points of view. The aim is to study how friction and wear can be modeled in the behavioral simulation of technical systems and to discuss the convenience and applicability of using different types of models as building blocks of a system model in simulations. Paper A reviews existing friction models of sliding contacts under different running conditions. Paper B uses a simplified contact model, the elastic foundation model, to model friction in a boundary-lubricated rolling and sliding contact. The model is integrated into a dynamic rigid body model of a mechanical system, and the system behavior is simulated. Paper C discusses the application of the elastic foundation model to rough surface contact problems and investigates how the error in its results depends on surface roughness. Papers D and E address how the wear of the contact surfaces at the pad-to-rotor interface in a passenger car disc brake can be simulated using finite element analysis (FEA).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2009. , 20 p.
Series
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009:03
Keyword [en]
Interfaces, Models, Simulation, Friction, Wear
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9861ISBN: 978-91-7415-215-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-9861DiVA: diva2:134322
Public defence
2009-02-09, Flodissalen, Lindstedsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100811Available from: 2009-01-23 Created: 2009-01-20 Last updated: 2010-08-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Frictions models for sliding dry, boundary and mixed lubricated contacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Frictions models for sliding dry, boundary and mixed lubricated contacts
2007 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 40, 580-587 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Friction, lubrication, and wear have a strong influence on the performance and behavior of mechanical systems. This paper deals with different friction models for sliding contacts running under different conditions. The models presented are suited to different situations, depending on the type of contact, running conditions, and the behavior of interest. The models will be discussed from simulation and tribological points of view. The different types of friction models considered are:

center dot friction models for transient sliding under dry, boundary and mixed lubrication conditions,

center dot friction models for micro-displacements of engineering surfaces subjected to transient sliding,

center dot friction models often used in the simulation and control of technical systems,

center dot combined friction models that represent physical behaviors fairly well but are also suitable for use in simulating systems,

center dot friction models that take into account the stochastic nature of interacting surface asperities

Keyword
friction; model; sliding contact; Coulomb; Dahl; Stribeck
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5771 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2005.11.014 (DOI)000243576700003 ()2-s2.0-33845185783 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100811

Available from: 2006-05-22 Created: 2006-05-22 Last updated: 2016-07-11Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling transient behavior of a mechanical system including a rolling and sliding contact
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling transient behavior of a mechanical system including a rolling and sliding contact
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of IMECE 1005, 2005 ASME Interantional Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2005, 229-238 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Thefriction and wear of rolling and sliding contacts are criticalfactors for the operation of machine elements such as bearings,gears, and cam mechanisms. In precision machines, for example, themain concern is to compensate for frictional losses, so asto improve control accuracy. In other applications it is oftendesirable to minimize friction losses to improve efficiency, though sometimeshigh friction is desired to prevent sliding and wear. Theaim of this study is to simulate the behavior ofa test equipment and show that simulations can be usedto study and optimize mechanical systems that include rolling andsliding contact. Simulations can be used to study the systemas a whole, as well as the contact conditions. Thetest equipment and the measurement procedure used are described. Inthe simulations, a contact model designed to handle transient contactconditions is integrated into a system model. The results showthat the contact strongly influences the system. The simulations showthat the use of a contact model allows the simulationof systems that contain contacts with different amounts of slip,and that such simulations can be used to study thecontact as well as the system. Surface roughness influences thecontact stiffness and is included in the simulations.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5773 (URN)10.1115/IMECE2005-80906 (DOI)000243026700030 ()2-s2.0-33646679896 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2005 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition; Orlando, FL; 5 November 2005 through 11 November 2005
Note

QC 20100811

Available from: 2006-05-22 Created: 2006-05-22 Last updated: 2016-06-09Bibliographically approved
3. Validation of a simplified numerical contact model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of a simplified numerical contact model
2008 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 41, no 9-10, 926-933 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Surface roughness tends to have a significant effect on how loads are transmitted at the contact interface between solid bodies. Most numerical contact models for analyzing rough surface contacts are computational demanding and more computationally efficient contact models are required. Depending on the purpose of the simulation, simplified and less accurate models can be preferable to more accurate, but also more complex, models. This paper discusses a simplified contact model called the elastic foundation model and its applicability to rough surfaces. The advantage of the model is that it is fast to evaluate, but its disadvantage is that it only gives an approximate solution to the contact problem. It is studied how surface roughness influences the errors in the elastic foundation solution in terms of predicted pressure distribution, real contact area, and normal and tangential contact stiffness. The results can be used to estimate the extent of error in the elastic foundation model, depending on the degree of surface roughness. The conclusion is that the elastic foundation model is not accurate enough to give a correct prediction of the actual contact stresses and contact areas, but it might be good enough for simulations where contact stiffness are of interest.

Keyword
contact calculations; Winkler; surface roughness; elastic foundation model; SIMULATION; WEAR
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9874 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2008.02.013 (DOI)000257736800016 ()2-s2.0-44949179326 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100621

Available from: 2009-01-23 Created: 2009-01-23 Last updated: 2016-05-12Bibliographically approved
4. Simulation of wear and contact pressure distribution at the pad-to-rotor interface in a disc brake using general purpose finite element analysis software
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of wear and contact pressure distribution at the pad-to-rotor interface in a disc brake using general purpose finite element analysis software
2009 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 267, no 12, 2243-2251 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Passenger car disc brakes are safety-critical components whose performance depends strongly on contact conditions at the pad-to-rotor interface. The interface can be classified as a conformal dry sliding contact. During braking both brake pad and rotor surfaces are worn, affecting the useful life of the brake as well as its behavior. This paper discusses how wear of the pad-to-rotor interface can be predicted using general purpose finite element analysis software. A three-dimensional finite element model of the brake pad and the rotor is developed to calculate the pressure distribution in the pad-to-rotor contact. A wear simulation procedure based on a generalized form of Archard's wear law and explicit Euler integration is used to simulate the wear of the brake pad under steady-state drag conditions.

Keyword
Disc brake; Wear simulation; Finite element analysis; FEA; Sliding wear
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9875 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2009.09.004 (DOI)000272810200013 ()2-s2.0-71849100622 (Scopus ID)
Note

Uppdaterad från konferensbidrag till artikel: 20100811 QC 20100811

Available from: 2009-01-23 Created: 2009-01-23 Last updated: 2016-05-12Bibliographically approved
5. Using finite element analysis to predict the brake pressure needed for effective rotor cleaning in disc brakes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using finite element analysis to predict the brake pressure needed for effective rotor cleaning in disc brakes
2008 (English)In: SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-2565, USA: SAE , 2008, 1-10 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an approach to simulating wear on both contact surfaces at the pad-to-rotor interface in discbrakes using general purpose finite element software. Itrepresents a first step toward a method of simulating the brake pressure needed to effectively clean the rotor ofunwanted oxide layers. Two simulation cases are presented. The first addresses running-in wear underconstant load and corresponds to repeated brakeapplications at the same constant brake load. Thesecond studies what will happen if a lower load is applied after the contact surfaces have been run-in at ahigher load level. This lower load is applied to wear off an oxide layer after a sequence of repeated stop braking at higher load levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: SAE, 2008
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-9876 (URN)10.4271/2008-01-2565 (DOI)2-s2.0-84877480272 (Scopus ID)
Conference
SAE 26th Annual Brake Colloquium & Exhibition
Note

QC 20100811

Available from: 2009-01-23 Created: 2009-01-23 Last updated: 2016-05-12Bibliographically approved

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