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Chemical Sensors Generated on Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Graphene for Application to Front-Line Drug Detection
RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Box 1070, SE-16425 Kista, Sweden.;Pamitus AB, Timotejvagen 1, SE-35253 Vaxjo, Sweden..
Swedish Natl Forens Ctr, SE-58194 Linkoping, Sweden..
KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Box 1070, SE-16425 Kista, Sweden..
RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, Box 1070, SE-16425 Kista, Sweden..
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2019 (English)In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 10, article id 2214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Generation of large areas of graphene possessing high quality and uniformity will be a critical factor if graphene-based devices/sensors are to be commercialized. In this work, epitaxial graphene on a 2" SiC wafer was used to fabricate sensors for the detection of illicit drugs (amphetamine or cocaine). The main target application is on-site forensic detection where there is a high demand for reliable and cost-efficient tools. The sensors were designed and processed with specially configured metal electrodes on the graphene surface by utilizing a series of anchors where the metal contacts are directly connected on the SiC substrate. This has been shown to improve adhesion of the electrodes and decrease the contact resistance. A microfluidic system was constructed to pump solutions over the defined graphene surface that could then act as a sensor area and react with the target drugs. Several prototypic systems were tested where non-covalent interactions were used to localize the sensing components (antibodies) within the measurement cell. The serendipitous discovery of a wavelength-dependent photoactivity for amphetamine and a range of its chemical analogs, however, limited the general application of these prototypic systems. The experimental results reveal that the drug molecules interact with the graphene in a molecule dependent manner based upon a balance of -stacking interaction of the phenyl ring with graphene (p-doping) and the donation of the amine nitrogens lone pair electrons into the *-system of graphene (n-doping).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI , 2019. Vol. 19, no 10, article id 2214
Keywords [en]
epitaxial graphene, sensors, microfluidics, photoactivity, illicit drugs, forensics
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URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255223DOI: 10.3390/s19102214ISI: 000471014500001PubMedID: 31091664Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85066874691OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-255223DiVA, id: diva2:1348171
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QC 20190903

Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved

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Jussi, Johnny IsraelssonFu, Ying

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